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Biblical comments are View Product. A Mystic's Way. Mark Patterson had a Near Death Experience from alcohol poisoning as an irrational teenager. Almost ten years later he received a phone call in the middle of the night from a woman whom he never met. She described the events Animal Rights. Gr There are few contemporary issues more controversial than the right of animals to a Gr There are few contemporary issues more controversial than the right of animals to a safe and natural life.

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Patterson presents a fair, thorough examination of the subject, offering a history of animal-rights movements; anecdotal stories of children and adults Choosing What's Chosen You is a unique self-help workbook that will guide you through the Choosing What's Chosen You is a unique self-help workbook that will guide you through the process of developing lovingkindness toward yourself and others. The reader is asked to choose a personal learning goal to explore through the Eastern practice of Demon in the Flames.

Damon Lucas is an English instructor at a Midwestern university, successful but lonely. On a bleak winter day, he enters an antique shop run by Nick, a strange, old giant of a man. In the shop, Damon finds and purchases Euclidean Geometry. This textbook is a self-contained presentation of Euclidean Geometry, a subject that has been a This textbook is a self-contained presentation of Euclidean Geometry, a subject that has been a core part of school curriculum for centuries.

The discussion is rigorous, axiom-based, written in a traditional manner, true to the Euclidean spirit. Transformations in the Famous But Nameless. Unique and intriguing, Famous but Nameless focuses on the Bible's anonymous supporting cast, highlighting important Unique and intriguing, Famous but Nameless focuses on the Bible's anonymous supporting cast, highlighting important character strengths expressed in their words and deeds. Author Mark Hendrickson's studies of lesser-known individuals from the Old and New Testaments offer tales rich with lessons This book examines the human ability to balance conflicts with a sense of context.

Frameworks provide the necessary structure. Frameworks can be physical or imaginary. However, in countries that implement moral rights , a copyright holder can in some cases successfully prevent the mutilation or destruction of a work that is publicly visible. Copyright does not prohibit all copying or replication.

Section , permits some copying and distribution without permission of the copyright holder or payment to same. The statute does not clearly define fair use, but instead gives four non-exclusive factors to consider in a fair use analysis. Those factors are:. In the United Kingdom and many other Commonwealth countries, a similar notion of fair dealing was established by the courts or through legislation. The concept is sometimes not well defined; however in Canada , private copying for personal use has been expressly permitted by statute since In Alberta Education v.

Canadian Copyright Licensing Agency Access Copyright , SCC 37, the Supreme Court of Canada concluded that limited copying for educational purposes could also be justified under the fair dealing exemption. In Australia, the fair dealing exceptions under the Copyright Act Cth are a limited set of circumstances under which copyrighted material can be legally copied or adapted without the copyright holder's consent.

Fair dealing uses are research and study; review and critique; news reportage and the giving of professional advice i. Under current Australian law , although it is still a breach of copyright to copy, reproduce or adapt copyright material for personal or private use without permission from the copyright owner, owners of a legitimate copy are permitted to "format shift" that work from one medium to another for personal, private use, or to "time shift" a broadcast work for later, once and only once, viewing or listening. Other technical exemptions from infringement may also apply, such as the temporary reproduction of a work in machine readable form for a computer.

In the United States the AHRA Audio Home Recording Act Codified in Section 10, prohibits action against consumers making noncommercial recordings of music, in return for royalties on both media and devices plus mandatory copy-control mechanisms on recorders. Later acts amended US Copyright law so that for certain purposes making 10 copies or more is construed to be commercial, but there is no general rule permitting such copying. Indeed, making one complete copy of a work, or in many cases using a portion of it, for commercial purposes will not be considered fair use.

The Digital Millennium Copyright Act prohibits the manufacture, importation, or distribution of devices whose intended use, or only significant commercial use, is to bypass an access or copy control put in place by a copyright owner. The copyright directive allows EU member states to implement a set of exceptions to copyright. Examples of those exceptions are:. It is legal in several countries including the United Kingdom and the United States to produce alternative versions for example, in large print or braille of a copyrighted work to provide improved access to a work for blind and visually impaired persons without permission from the copyright holder.

A copyright, or aspects of it e. The creator and original copyright holder benefits, or expects to, from production and marketing capabilities far beyond those of the author. In the digital age of music, music may be copied and distributed at minimal cost through the Internet ; however, the record industry attempts to provide promotion and marketing for the artist and his or her work so it can reach a much larger audience.

A copyright holder need not transfer all rights completely, though many publishers will insist. Some of the rights may be transferred, or else the copyright holder may grant another party a non-exclusive license to copy or distribute the work in a particular region or for a specified period of time. A transfer or licence may have to meet particular formal requirements in order to be effective, [66] for example under the Australian Copyright Act the copyright itself must be expressly transferred in writing.

Under the U. Copyright Act, a transfer of ownership in copyright must be memorialized in a writing signed by the transferor. For that purpose, ownership in copyright includes exclusive licenses of rights. Thus exclusive licenses, to be effective, must be granted in a written instrument signed by the grantor. No special form of transfer or grant is required.

A simple document that identifies the work involved and the rights being granted is sufficient. Non-exclusive grants often called non-exclusive licenses need not be in writing under U. They can be oral or even implied by the behavior of the parties. Transfers of copyright ownership, including exclusive licenses, may and should be recorded in the U. Copyright Office. Information on recording transfers is available on the Office's web site. While recording is not required to make the grant effective, it offers important benefits, much like those obtained by recording a deed in a real estate transaction.

Copyright may also be licensed. This is also called a compulsory license , because under this scheme, anyone who wishes to copy a covered work does not need the permission of the copyright holder, but instead merely files the proper notice and pays a set fee established by statute or by an agency decision under statutory guidance for every copy made.

Rule 2: Know Your (Intellectual Property) Rights

Because of the difficulty of following every individual work, copyright collectives or collecting societies and performing rights organizations such as ASCAP , BMI , and SESAC have been formed to collect royalties for hundreds thousands and more works at once. Though this market solution bypasses the statutory license, the availability of the statutory fee still helps dictate the price per work collective rights organizations charge, driving it down to what avoidance of procedural hassle would justify.


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Copyright licenses known as open or free licenses seek to grant several rights to licensees, either for a fee or not. Free in this context is not as much of a reference to price as it is to freedom. What constitutes free licensing has been characterised in a number of similar definitions, including by order of longevity the Free Software Definition , the Debian Free Software Guidelines , the Open Source Definition and the Definition of Free Cultural Works.

Further refinements to these definitions have resulted in categories such as copyleft and permissive. Founded in by James Boyle , Lawrence Lessig , and Hal Abelson , the Creative Commons CC is a non-profit organization [68] which aims to facilitate the legal sharing of creative works. To this end, the organization provides a number of generic copyright license options to the public, gratis. These licenses allow copyright holders to define conditions under which others may use a work and to specify what types of use are acceptable.

Terms of use have traditionally been negotiated on an individual basis between copyright holder and potential licensee. Therefore, a general CC license outlining which rights the copyright holder is willing to waive enables the general public to use such works more freely. Six general types of CC licenses are available although some of them are not properly free per the above definitions and per Creative Commons' own advice.

These are based upon copyright-holder stipulations such as whether he or she is willing to allow modifications to the work, whether he or she permits the creation of derivative works and whether he or she is willing to permit commercial use of the work. Some sources are critical of particular aspects of the copyright system.

Intellectual property

This is known as a debate over copynorms. Particularly to the background of uploading content to internet platforms and the digital exchange of original work, there is discussion about the copyright aspects of downloading and streaming , the copyright aspects of hyperlinking and framing.

Concerns are often couched in the language of digital rights, digital freedom , database rights , open data or censorship. Lessig coined the term permission culture to describe a worst-case system. Some suggest an alternative compensation system. In Europe consumers are acting up against the raising costs of music, film and books, a political party has been grown out of it, The Pirates. Some groups reject copyright altogether, taking an anti-copyright stance. The perceived inability to enforce copyright online leads some to advocate ignoring legal statutes when on the web. Copyright, like other intellectual property rights , is subject to a statutorily determined term.

Once the term of a copyright has expired, the formerly copyrighted work enters the public domain and may be used or exploited by anyone without obtaining permission, and normally without payment. However, in paying public domain regimes the user may still have to pay royalties to the state or to an authors' association. Courts in common law countries, such as the United States and the United Kingdom, have rejected the doctrine of a common law copyright. Public domain works should not be confused with works that are publicly available.

Works posted in the internet , for example, are publicly available, but are not generally in the public domain. Copying such works may therefore violate the author's copyright. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Legal concept regulating rights of a creator to their work. This article is about the legal right. For the symbol, see Copyright symbol. For the Wikipedia policy about copyright issues, see Wikipedia:Copyrights. Not to be confused with Copywriting. Authors' rights Database right Indigenous intellectual property Industrial design right Integrated circuit layout design protection Moral rights Plant breeders' rights Related rights Supplementary protection certificate Utility model. Economic systems. Economic theories. Related topics. Anti-capitalism Capitalist state Consumerism Crisis theory Criticism of capitalism Cronyism Culture of capitalism Exploitation Globalization History History of theory Market economy Periodizations of capitalism Perspectives on capitalism Post-capitalism Speculation Spontaneous order Venture philanthropy.

Main article: History of copyright law. See also: International copyright agreements and List of parties to international copyright agreements. Main article: Threshold of originality. Main article: Copyright registration. Main article: Copyright notice. Main article: Copyright infringement. Main articles: Copyright term and List of countries' copyright length. Main article: Limitations and exceptions to copyright. Main article: Idea—expression divide. Main articles: First-sale doctrine and Exhaustion of rights. Main articles: Fair use and Fair dealing.

See also: Collective rights management , Extended collective licensing , Compulsory license , and Copyright transfer agreement. Main article: Opposition to copyright. Main article: Public domain. Law portal. Adelphi Charter Artificial scarcity Authors' rights and related rights , roughly equivalent concepts in civil law countries Conflict of laws Copyleft Copyright Alliance Copyright in architecture in the United States Copyright on the content of patents and in the context of patent prosecution Copyright for Creativity Copyright infringement of software Copyright on religious works Creative Barcode Digital rights management Digital watermarking Entertainment law Freedom of panorama Intellectual property protection of typefaces List of Copyright Acts List of copyright case law Literary property Model release Opposition to copyright Paracopyright Photography and the law Pirate Party Printing patent , a precursor to copyright Private copying levy Production music Rent-seeking Reproduction fees Samizdat Software copyright Threshold pledge system.

Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 20 December Retrieved 6 December Ideas Versus Expression. Publishing Forms and Contracts. Oxford University Press — via Google Books. Retrieved 20 February Mincov Law Corporation. Retrieved 3 September Time Inc. Retrieved 24 June Facebook — yet to be graded by the new site — has grown notorious over the years for fiddling with its terms of service and privacy policies. In the Internet erupted when a change to the terms implied that Facebook owned all the content users uploaded forever, even if they closed their accounts.

Facebook quickly changed their policy and enacted a new system where users could vote on changes to terms of service policies. Westview Press. Rethinking copyright: history, theory, language. Edward Elgar Publishing. Archived from the original on 19 November Retrieved 8 June Der Spiegel.

Retrieved 11 April World Intellectual Property Organization. Retrieved 18 November JAIC 36 2 : — Copyright Office Circular No. The Geneva Act came into force on 16 September , for the first twelve to have ratified which included four non-members of the Berne Union as required by Art. Archived from the original PDF on 25 June Retrieved 29 January Contemporary Intellectual Property: Law and Policy. Oxford University Press. Reid, U. Retrieved 9 May Intellectual Property and Information Wealth: Copyright and related rights.

Greenwood Publishing Group. Retrieved 1 December Art and copyright. Hart Publishing. Retrieved 4 June S Copyright Office. Retrieved 11 August See also Tyler T. The legislative history of the Copyright Act says this difference was intended to address transitory works such as ballets, pantomimes, improvised performances, dumb shows, mime performances, and dancing. Retrieved 7 July New York, New York: Picador. Learned Publishing. Social Science Electronic Publishing. Copyright User. April Kluwer Law International. Kirtsaeng" PDF. Archived from the original PDF on 2 July Limitations on exclusive rights: Fair use".

Retrieved 16 June Copyright Office".

Guiding Rights: Trademarks, Copyright and the Internet - Mark V. B. Partridge - Google Books

Royal National Institute of Blind People. Retrieved 24 October European Digital Rights. Dowd, Raymond J.

Intellectual Property Law : About Internet Regulation Laws

Copyright Litigation Handbook 1st ed. Thomson West. Ellis, Sara R. Ghosemajumder, Shuman. Washington State University Press, Mazzone, Jason. Is Creative use of Musical Works without a licence acceptable under Copyright? Nimmer on Copyright. Matthew Bender. Patterson, Lyman Ray Copyright in Historical Perspective. Online Version. Vanderbilt University Press.

Rife, by Martine Courant. Convention, Copyright, and Digital Writing Southern Illinois University Press; pages; Examines legal, pedagogical, and other aspects of online authorship. Rosen, Ronald Music and Copyright. Oxford Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press.