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In he became Red Bull King of the Air and in he was the first rider ever to win this title for a second time. In Antoine cemented his name into the history books of Red Bull Rampage: He was the first rider ever to land a double backflip in the competition catapulting him into second place — for the second time after It also was his redemption from Rampage when the same trick ended with a crash and a broken arm.

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ION is about challenging yourself, experiencing nature and feeling the force of gravity. We develop gear that is not only smart and innovative, but also transforms our passion into an unique design. Since the brand serves the international markets in kitesurfing, windsurfing, surfing, SUP, wakeboarding and biking since and is available in more than 40 countries worldwide. Therefore, we develop gear that is not only smart and innovative but also transforms our passion into a unique design.

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Motor Age , July 7th, Lord Robert Cecil was one of the architects of of the League of Nations. Pedestrians, bicycles, traffic calming, speed limits, the law: all become a nuisance to be wished away. Most commentators assume he was but jokers got there before him anyway. Scurrilous poet Harry Graham penned this in See Chapter Adorno, The only traffic that cannot safely use our roads is high-speed motor traffic for which special highways should be provided.

It was a persuasive argument during the recent recession when mileage by car did, indeed, seem to dip and for quite some years perhaps suggesting millenials may be rejecting motoring in favour of their mobile phones and iPads but mileage by car has since recovered a little. Nevertheless, peak car is certainly feasible, especially given that all other forms of transport have had similar peaks.

Rail travel peaked in the s. Bus travel peaked in the s as did cycle travel. You are traffic. Ironically, the first public road users allowed on the motorway — for one day only — were cyclists. If he were writing today, the bicycle would be at the top of his list for how to unsnarl the city. As transport progressives of the s were well aware, but was quickly forgotten in the early s when the motor car stole its thunder, the bicycle allows for individualised, speedy travel at any time of the day or night, and, for many people, is ideally suited to the sort of short journeys common in urban areas.

Travel by train with a folding bike.

Need to transport four people now and again? Join a car club and rent a car by the hour. Hate hills? Use an electric bike. That the bicycle could play a greater role in cities is not utopian — in the s politicians, planners and engineers carved out space for cyclists on Dutch roads that were beginning to clog with cars.

The Netherlands already had a dense network of cycleways in the s but the network was improved and massively extended from onwards. It has been improving ever since. The Minister for Transport said provision for cyclists was a local matter.


This is exactly the same reason wheeled out today. Special roads for cars could now be constructed. It was a mature network by the end of the s. Back in the newspapers reported that the Special Roads Bill would see the building of cycleways, too. And just as cyclists would be fined for riding on motorways, pedestrians would be fined for straying on cycleways.

Introducing his Bill, Barnes said:. It is nothing of the kind. It is often overlooked that nowadays we are all motorists, whether or not we drive a private car. Everybody travels on buses or coaches and the greater proportion of our domestic and personal needs are delivered by motor van.

These same powers can —and, I sincerely hope, will — be used by county highway authorities for the construction of special roads for pedestrians and for cyclists — across for instance, a national park, along a river bank, across mountain, moor, or the coast line. The cost of constructing and maintaining the special types of roads for hikers or cycle paths for cyclists will not represent any very considerable capital outlay or annual cost for maintenance.

At a time when the State, by this Measure, visualises the construction of these motorways at the capital cost I have mentioned, for the purpose of relieving the local authority of a good deal of the cost of other highways, it is not unreasonable to suggest that highway authorities should use these powers for the purpose I have indicated, especially as the advantages to be derived will be enjoyed largely by the residents in their own localities.

Walkden, the MP for Doncaster, stressed that if cyclists did get cycleways, they ought to be fined if they choose not to use them, despite the fact a previous parliamentary report had found that the cycle paths constructed in the s were universally poor:. Most were never originally intended for high-speed motor vehicles. Szlemko, Jacob A. Benfield, Paul A. Bell, Jerry L. Altman described attachment to, personalization of, and defense of primary territories e. Aggressive driving may occur when social norms for defending a primary territory i.

Both number of territory markers e.

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Scottish rights have developed differently, and so have those of other English-speaking countries. Touring cyclists used to experience similar restrictions until the national cycling organisations started offering reciprocal arrangements, a technique later copied by motoring organisations. He was also an accomplished poster artist and many of his paintings were shown in the Royal Academy. He supported the registration of bicycles. We are nourishing at immense cost a monster of great potential destructiveness, and yet we love him dearly. To refuse to accept the challenge it presents would be an act of defeatism.

Professor Dr. These run on either side of the roadway, are 4ft. We have only to watch the traffic in any great London thoroughfare to realize what an enormous boon they would be to our city, where the cycle forms one of the easiest, cheapest and most rapid forms of locomotion. As things are, the rider in Cheapside or Oxford Street during the rush hours of the day must run innumerable risks. The Hub , May 27th, Lanes would run on both pavements, one going east to west and the other west to east. They would be marked by a different coloured paving stone and monitored by marshals whose job would be to see no one fell below the 3mph speed limit.

Researchers attempted to access crosswalks in California. Those motorists in high-status cars were less likely to yield to pedestrians, as they should do by law. Drivers of high-status cars were also more likely to break other road laws, said Piff. In one of these studies, we looked at whether drivers would stop for a pedestrian that we had posed waiting to cross at a crosswalk. He approaches as the red truck successfully stops. As well as passing and re-passing, it has long been recognised that users of the highway may also lawfully pause.

In Harrison v Rutland of , Lord Esher said:. There are many things often done and usually done on a highway by the public, and if a person does not transgress any such usual and reasonable mode of using a highway, I do not think he is a trespasser. Without this definition, cars would not be able to park on the public highway, and sandwich eaters would not be able to sit by the side of a road to eat their lunch.

However, the common law rule is that those using the highway are entitled to remain at rest for a reasonable time, but anyone who obstructs the highway for longer than is reasonable causes a nuisance. Today, the Highway Authority owns the top parts of the roads unless it also owns the land adjoining the road, too.

The landowner owns the rest, beneath and above these two spits. In England, this maxim can be traced back to at least , and the Statute of Winchester, the first English statute to deal with roads, although its origins may lie in Jewish law from a thousand years earlier. Technically, the maxim means that an aircraft travelling overhead would be committing trespass when entering airspace above land owned by somebody else. English courts decided the height above which trespass would not be considered ought to be 75 feet.

Clifton v Bury , The Tasmanian supreme court has held that a landowner had enough rights to the airspace above his land to prevent his neighbour from shooting his cat while it was sitting on the roof of his shed. Davies v Bennison , The footway, for instance, is the path by the side of the road dedicated to use by pedestrians only.

Township of Wayne, Illinois , of The plaintiff asserts that the rights of bicycle riders and vehicle drivers are generally coextensive. He observes that bicyclists have traditionally used roads and highways without restriction, and he cites a state statute provision that grants bicyclists the rights and duties of drivers of vehicles. No special pavement markings or signs indicated that bicyclists, like motorists, were intended to ride on the road or bridge, or that bicycles, rather than vehicles, were the intended users of the route.

I respectfully dissent from this absurd and dangerous proposition. Hamilton, rev. The present prejudice against bicycling has been partly caused and cannot but be fostered and increased by a disregard to the feelings of other passengers on the road; and although the right of the bicyclist to the free use of the public highway should be at all times maintained, any needless altercation should be studiously avoided. Fisher Unwin, London, October Wells, Chapman, London, He was Minister for Health in —4 and Home Secretary in — Montagu may be wheeled out nowadays as the archetypal aristocratic motorist but he had once been a keen cyclist.

He pedalled to parliament in the s. In the s, W. We can do what we please until we invade the rights of some other person. To prevent such invasion is the purpose of all law. The law of the road that two meeting, each must yield somewhat of the road, contains the philosophy of action where rights conflict. Such philosophy compels each to yield something. Pioneer women drivers could be just as aggressive and only a little less reckless than male motorists.

Incidentally, the Karlsruhe Institute for Technology was the institution where Carl Benz studied engineering. Prohibiting a particular mode from using public roads can be considered as inequitable as excluding a particular racial or ethnic group from using public parks or public restrooms.

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  7. It was not a strip of land, or any corporeal thing, but a legal and customary right … What existed, in fact, was not a road, but what we might almost term an easement — a right of way, enjoyed by the public at large from village to village, along a certain customary course, which, if much frequented, became a beaten track. Not only that, the finer part. Toad got 20 years in the clink. Not for his reckless driving, but for stealing a car. Woodgate was a noted writer on rowing. It was technically an illegal act. The vehicle was a three-wheeled bath-chair, with electric driving power generated from a primary battery carried in the chair.

    Cyclists are allowed on American and British roads by right; motorists are there under licence, with the driving licence being a privilege that can be rescinded. Wright, of the Mercury Bicycle Club, and S.


    Conant Foster and H. Walker, mounted on a bicycle, and the others on tricycles, were about to enter Central Park, when warned by a policeman that their action was in violation of a City ordinance. They persisted in riding into the Park and willingly submitted to arrest, wishing to test the legality of the ordinance. This they refused to pay and were committed to prison.

    Their counsel, who was on hand, it is supposed by preconcerted arrangement, at once started for the Supreme Court, where a writ of habeas corpus was obtained from Judge Lawrence. Mason, An adult cyclist called Swift was caught riding on a bridge going over the Kansas river and was arrested for violation of a city ordinance prohibiting bicycle riding on sidewalks and on the bridge. He was convicted. The Supreme Court of Kansas reversed the decision:. It is further shown by the evidence that a bicycle can be driven at the rate from 2 to 20 miles per hour; that the ordinary and usual rate of speed is 8 miles per hour; that they can be stopped within from 10 to 20 feet, when being driven at the rate of 10 miles per hour, the limit within which they can be stopped depending somewhat on the kind of bicycle and the experience of the rider; that bicycles have been in use in this city for several years, and at the time of this arrest that there were more than in constant use in the city ….

    It does not, either in express terms or by fair implication, forbid riding upon a bicycle on the road-way, or that part of any of the public streets that are devoted to the use of carriages, wagons, and other vehicles, and, while the ordinance is subject to the construction that it was only along or across the foot passage-way or sidewalk of the Kansas river bridge that persons were forbidden to ride on bicycles, yet for the present we shall adopt the construction necessarily adhered to by the trial court, that the ordinance intended to forbid all riding upon bicycles across any part of the Kansas river bridge.

    It is an admitted fact in this case that at the time of the arrest Swift was riding his bicycle on that part of the bridge used for wagons, carriages, and other vehicles. This statement of the question necessarily assumes that the power of the city could be exercised to prevent the use of bicycles along the sidewalks of the public streets and these sidewalks will include the footways across the bridge to the same extent as the use of all other kind of vehicles, no matter how propelled, could be prevented. Public streets are highways, and every citizen has a right to use them.

    Both the sidewalks and roadways must remain unobstructed, so that people can walk along one without interruption or danger, or drive along the other without delay or apprehension. One of the most imperative duties of city governments in this country is to keep their public streets in such a condition that citizens can travel along them with safety, and without any unnecessary delay.

    While the tyranny of the American system of government very largely consists in the action of the municipal authorities, this right has not yet been questioned or attempted to be abridged. There can be no question, then, but what a citizen riding on a bicycle in that part of the street devoted to the passage of vehicles is but exercising his legal right to its use, and a city ordinance that attempted to forbid such use of that part of a public street would be held void, as against common right.

    Sidewalks are intended, constructed, and used solely by pedestrians, and not for the use of vehicles. They should be permitted to go across them at such public places as other vehicles are permitted. Bulletin , March 10th, Second Motist flying past. Punch , December 12th, Forbes, ed. Hall, T. Williams, Oxford University Press, Bickmore, Murray, London, Average Citizen, his wife and children, cross the city streets or walk the country roads with much the same assurance that a luckless rabbit feels when chased by a pack of hounds. Dean, Public Affairs News Service, The title is based on a scene from Hamlet I.

    Augustus Bozzi Granville travelled widely, and clearly loved rail travel in particular, then still a relative novelty when he was writing an guidebook to the spas of England. Colburn, London, Goddard, New York, Straddle a Saddle, then Paddle and Skedaddle. Harper, Chapman and Hall, London, Bentley, London, Jackman, Cambridge University Press, Probably both.

    Loides and Elmete , T. Whitaker, Bagwell, Routledge, Tobias, Batsford, Government and the railways evicted almost , people from their homes to make way for the new construction. This speed is done on new rights of way, the Permanent Way. Speed on motorways US: freeways can be seen in a similar way. These are set-aside roads, built for a specific use. Subliminally or otherwise, 19th-century artists started to pay less attention to foregrounds, which had been a striking feature of paintings from before the railway age.

    Willis, G. Morris, C. Schafer, and S. The following month the record was broken again, by Selwyn Edge, doing the ride in 7 hours, 2 minutes. The Brighton road: speed, sport, and history on the classic highway , Charles G. The racehorse, the steamship, and the bicycle, have each of them reached thirty miles an hour. The horse is, however, close upon, if it has not actually attained, its utmost limits; the bicycle can already beat the horse for long distances, and will certainly go at higher speeds for short ones; while the steamship will also go much quicker, though how much no one can yet say.

    Eight miles per hour scarce moves the sluggish blood. Forum user oozaveared gave a physics lessons to readers of British cycling website, road. If the car is doing 44mph you can make that , joules or 32 times the impact. Make it a Range Rover with 4 passengers in and you have , joules or times the impact energy. Hammerton, ed. Toads … expected those in front of their bicycles to get the hell out of the way. Mansfield, And just the thing I look like on the wheel! And scorching by bicycle is still with us! Horses scared easily and could bolt, adding a frisson of unpredictability to 19th century streets.

    In New York in , people were killed by horses and horse-drawn vehicles in Today, there are about automobile-related deaths each year. In Chicago in there were The number of deaths in England and Wales due to road incidents is approximately 5, a year, or between 80 and deaths per million of population. This equates to an annual rate of about 70 deaths per million of population.

    There are more cars and trucks on the road today than horses or horse-drawn vehicles in the Victorian era. If, therefore, road mortality was expressed in terms of deaths per 1, motor vehicles, it could be argued that horses and carriages posed a greater mortal danger to the public in than motor vehicles in the modern era. However, the greater speed and power of modern motor vehicles means pedestrians steer clear of the busiest roads and this is because of the obvious danger from being hit by fast moving motor vehicles. Stedman, Oxford Oxford University Press, Before the introduction of uniforms in , the scouts had to provide their own clothing, too.

    By there were AA cycle scouts across the UK. By there were AA motorbike patrols but still cyclists. Flink, M. Press, Cambridge, Mass. Northcliffe , R. Filson Young, E. Richards, Ruskin might have written after he had encountered a 60 horse power racing car driven at top speed by a crack brained scorcher, would … have proven most interesting reading. Parking bays on British roads can be a maximum length of 6. These dimensions were set in in order to accommodate bigger cars but cars have kept on increasing in size. Parking with two-wheels-on-the-sidewalk is seen as a courtesy to other motorists i.

    There is no legal right to park on a road, verge or footway. In Britain, from the s onwards, it became more and more common to store cars — for free — on the public highway, a practice officially forbidden before this time, and strongly enforced. The offence was introduced in While all other parts of the Highway Act have been either amended or repealed, clause 72 remains in force:. That is a cover-all that is still in force. Motor cars were classed as carriages in the Motor Car Act; bicycles were so classified in The operators of bicycles and cars have the same road rights, that is, being able to pass and repass over the public highway.

    Stopping for any length of time is a grey area, with a mishmash of laws, and parking of a carriage is also caught up in a swirl of conflicting legislation. Since January a fixed penalty notice can be issued with the offender given a ticket with fine and points attached unless they appeal in which case it goes to court. However, unlike for a speeding offence a police officer has no power, in relation to driving on the sidewalk, to insist that the keeper of a vehicle tells of who was driving at any particular time. This particular quirk of the law could be remedied by politicians in an instant, but MPs — despite many promises — have over the years repeatedly failed to give the police this simple expedient.

    Now, back to that crane. If there was one knocking around the police officer should use it to lift cars off the sidewalk, ship them off to the pound and charge motorists for the process. Then perhaps British sidewalks could be freed of private property obstructing the public highway. While motorways in the UK consist of 1 percent of roads they carry a disproportionate amount of traffic. The 2, miles of British motorways carry 20 percent of all motorised traffic.

    The remaining 87 percent of roads , miles of them carry 36 percent of the traffic. There are , miles of roads in Britain. Statistics , Department for Transport, In the novel, Miss Ophelia tries to reform the wild Topsy. It is now a narrow and somewhat winding road to near Walton, but the rest of it runs in straight lengths and is somewhat raised. Parish boundaries follow it for considerable distances. The River Wharfe is crossed a mile to the east of Thorp Arch, but the crossing has long been out of use and is now approached from the south by a green lane.

    On the north it is obstructed for a mile by wartime constructions, but beyond Walton it is in use throughout. Its junction with the northern road makes it clear that Rudgate is the later of the two. The Metropolitan Streets Act — parts of which are still in force — says:. This started on July 4th, , using horses as the motive power. It is capable of accommodating 16 or 18 persons, all inside, and we apprehend it would be almost impossible to make it overturn, owing to the great width of the carriage.

    It was drawn by three beautiful bays abreast, after the French fashion. Bollards to protect pedestrians from wheeled vehicles are not recent either. The first were installed in London in Foley House was demolished in This said that is a street of 49 feet 6 inches wide the buildings had to be the same height as the width of the street. If the street was over 50 feet wide it could be be lined with buildings of 80 feet in height. Each Inn covers several acres, with a great number of alleyways and narrow passages. Public access is limited.

    Edwards, Hunter, London, Manchester, From Hyde-park-corner to Devonshire House the houses are confined to the north side, the Green-park forming, to that point, the southern side, which, for a considerable distance, is lined by foliage trees of some antiquity, and of great beauty. Being the high road to the most fashionable quarters in the west and south-west of London, Piccadilly, during a great portion of the year, presents a bright and lively, not to say kaleidoscopic, appearance; and even when the great stream of West-end London life seems to have nearly run dry elsewhere it is still to be found, though perhaps but a rivulet, in Piccadilly.

    The Mall was a woodland in the s but was made into a processional way in the years immediately preceding the First World War. The eight roads that radiate out from the Bank of England intersection are on Roman alignments, and the cross-roads is therefore Roman, too. London medieval roads are not medieval in width.

    Town planner Inigo Triggs said the principal streets of a typical medieval town were about 24 feet wide, the lanes 18 feet, and the passages 6 feet. In cities such as London the principal streets were sometimes 30 feet in width. Providing a broad, high quality cycle route segregated from motor traffic in these circumstances … is not always practicable. Pubs situated in city locations are no different and are heavily reliant on daily deliveries, of both food and beer, collection of empty kegs and require access for company technical support staff.

    Segregated cycle lanes already cause particular issues for pub deliveries. Physically segregated lanes prevent this access and in some circumstances, bulk containers must be wheeled across the cycle lane which poses a further risk to both cyclists and delivery drivers. Whereas it may be desirable to separate road users to protect those considered more vulnerable, further restrictions could seriously hinder the ability to deliver to pubs, particularly if this were to prevent deliveries during busy trading periods, i.

    However, where further, physical segregation of road use is proposed, we would emphasise that the road system is critical for the functioning of businesses in towns and cities, particularly London. He was interested in history and folklore. In he helped found the Folklore Society. The Jacobean mansion was built in , originally for the Earls of Suffolk. An archway from Northumberland House is now the principal entrance to the Bromley by Bow community centre. It was suggested that this lamentable state of affairs would be remedied whenever the great streams of public intercourse could be made to pass through the districts in question.

    It was also contended that the moral condition of these poorer occupants would necessarily be improved by communication with a more respectable inhabitancy, and that the introduction at the same time of improved habits and a freer circulation of air would tend materially to extirpate those prevalent diseases which not only ravaged the poorer inhabitants in question, but were so dangerous to the adjacent localities.

    On the whole it was made clear that the horse power required for the metropolis would, under the suggested scientific improvement, be reduced by one-half ; that vehicles of the tricycle species would extensively supersede horse power; while the health of the people would be improved by the absence of dust and the ready way in which the streets would be cleansed of decomposing poisonous animal matter. He considered that the Exhibition was one of the most legitimate as well as the most interesting parts of the Congress, and was full of suggestions to the manufacturers respecting the construction of machines to meet various national necessities.

    Sir Edwin Chadwick, who was present, saw, as I did, the importance of the cycle for outdoor health exercises, and up to his death, thirteen years later on, rendered the most useful services in promoting the improvements of the machine and the application of it. I argued that if, on trial of it, we could go about in the open air as we did on horseback, it must be healthful to us physically, as it must be charming mentally.

    The idea led me to Coventry to see the work going on there in the manufacture of cycles, and I saw in it a new trade, a constructive trade, not only of tricycles, such as have been described, but of two-wheel machines also, bicycles …. Irrespective of all the disputes and wars that were then beginning to show themselves in the cycling world, I joined it and became a cyclist, accepting the post offered to me of President of the Tricycle Union, which was then in active life. Cycling had its dangers and its objections, but, on the whole, it did good service. It disseminated abroad what had long been a want, an exercise that would benefit the masses ; it let fresh air save bodies that had been long confined in-doors; it encouraged women as well as men to go, not only out of doors, but out of towns, and it infused into the mind new scenes and new thoughts.

    The results were surprising, and soon outstripped custom. My desire was to make the new exercise something more than a sport. I strove to give it a scientific and antiquarian character, and founded the Society of Cyclists in order to carry out these objects, to the advantage of riders of both sexes of tricycles and bicycles. We combined for the purpose of holding regular meetings in London, and we rode out of London, and founded annual congresses in the country.

    We asked noblemen and other owners of estates and curiosities to throw open their grounds, houses, and other treasures for our inspection, and we got Mayors of boroughs and kindred authorities to sustain our efforts.

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    We did all we could, in fact, to accomplish our endeavours, and I held office as President of this Society for no shorter a period than ten years. All the world is for cycling now, as if a new pair of legs had been invented, and the advance in health and strength has been unparalleled. By cycling the sanitation of this country, to say nothing of other countries that have adopted it generally, has advanced a hundred years.

    Personal health has improved; sanitary necessities in wayside inns and public-houses have been introduced; the home life has developed freer than before of disease and care, and outside games, so favourable to healthy life, have become the order of the day. In a word, as advocates for the abolition of disease — as earnest as a Wilberforce or a Clarkson could ever have been for the abolition of slavery — the sanitarians have seen nothing that gave so grand an impulse to the health movement as the cycling crusade, which, with some drawbacks of a slight kind, all removable, is one of the leading features of the century.

    In this way were the projecting house fronts of picturesque London destroyed; they did not suit the new requirements, and so they had to give way. Edwards, Hunter, London Originally called the Metropolitan Free Drinking Fountain Association it changed its name to include cattle troughs in The idea of converting these fortifications into thoroughfares originated in Paris in when the boulevards between the Porte St.

    Honore and the Porte St. Antoine were laid out. Fenning, L. Hawes, and Co. Ackers, They even had at least one dual carriageway although none so far found in Britain. The Via Portuensis, built in the first century by the Roman emperor Claudius between Rome and its port Ostia at the mouth of the Tiber, was constructed with two parallel roads; one for traffic going one direction, and the other for traffic going the other. A median strip between the two carriageways was paved with bricks and dedicated for foot traffic.

    Plans in to dig up graves to make way for a motorway were aborted. The wide road was built in as a processional avenue for the cemetery. He also created the road. It was ft at its narrowest and ft at its widest. And discount these rights the English settlers and soldiers certainly did. A chain is both Imperial and metric, 66 feet but links. Woodward created a new city plan in and the road was named after him. Hill, Utah State University Press, Report of the Royal Commission on Transport in London , Fogelson, Yale University, It was bound to … congest our towns with traffic.

    Wells, BBC, November 19th, I asked. There have been many calls to reduce car use over the years, but nothing seems to get done. In rural areas car dependency is a given and only becomes a sore point when fuel price spikes highlight the fact that such dependency can be shockingly expensive. These cities are now soaring ever higher into the sky, meaning ever more people can be accommodated in city buildings. This was based on a survey by London Residential Research. The LRR survey showed that four out of five towers are residential.

    Double- and triple-decker roads are ugly and discredited; road tunnels are expensive and can never replicate the amount of extra floor space provided by skyscrapers. In effect, road space in cities is finite, and therefore incredibly valuable. For such valuable road space to be gummed-up by space-inefficient motor vehicles is unsustainable.

    To increase the speed of motor vehicles in cities some planners dream about burying pedestrians. Canadian cities have done this successfully. The complex was started, modestly, in and expanded massively in the s and s. The tunnels are lined with many shops. In effect, this is an underground shopping mall, a protection from both weather and motor vehicles.

    But there are risks. This system works for the same reason as the tunnels in Toronto: brutal winter weather. In temperate cities pedestrians reject these sort of facilities. Densely populated Hong Kong is another city with a maze of pedestrian walkways. The first one was built in the s — now there are more than , making Hong Kong a three-dimensional city, says American architect, Jonathan D Solomon. The first walkways were privately built and owned, most are now government owned.

    Solomon has co-authored a guidebook to Hong Kong, celebrating its 3Dness. Footbridges and subways are strongly disliked by pedestrians. In the s London constructed an extensive system of skyways but these Pedways proved to be extremely unpopular. In the s cities could turn a profit from selling manure to farmers but in the s the booming number of urban horses caused the, er, bottom to fall out of the horse-shit business.

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    Further, he decreed that any violator should be slain and his body impaled on a stake before his house. Up until the s, few people had cars and those that were owned were usually accommodated off the public highway when not in use. Horses and carts or carriages were not left in the street at night, and when — a rare occurrence — unhorsed cabs were left all night on carriageways, the offenders were fined. Victorian London may have been smelly, dusty and muddy, but it had no parking problem. A stage coach … may set down or take up passengers in the street, this being necessary for public convenience, but it must be done in reasonable time and private premises must be procured for the coach to stop in during the interval between the end of one journey and the commencement of another.

    In Japan, in order to own a car, you must prove that you have an off-street parking space. In the UK, no such proof is required. We endure clogged streets, dangerous for pedestrians, cyclists and motorists, but this is seen as normal. Architect H. Beautiful smooth brand new fast deep thick black tarmac. No more thunk, thunk, thunk, thunk, kerthunk, thunk, but shoosh.

    Just shoooosh. Two girls standing by the side of the road waiting to cross are a little bemused to see a man on a bicycle come round the corner, audibly gasp, sit up in the saddle and raise his arms in a victory of joy. Barges, in fact.

    Make your machines intelligent

    Try it and die. Ways of the World , M. Lombard Street in London was surfaced with rubber sheeting until the s. Today, rubber can be found in roads, mixed in with the asphalt. Crumb rubber modifier CRM or ground tyre rubber GTR is recycled tyre rubber which has been ground into very small particles to use as an asphalt modifier.