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One was to plug his ears, swear and pray aloud, put his feet in cold water and anoint his body in order to soothe these agonising sensations. The bourgeois public sphere provided him with a platform to channel his thinking. In Church, the barrel organ and plainchant always stirred such emotion in me that I just had to restrain myself and keep my hotly swollen lips closed, so that I did not sob loudly and weep and constantly wipe my eyes.

Here, religion fulfilled its purpose as a mediator between individual suffering and collective cultural meaning. The victim sought help, while the fighter sought to keep the helpers at a distance. This ambivalence is typical of his narrative as well as of his attitude towards Mesmerism. In , he wrote:. In the second half of the nineteenth century, German psychiatry increased its focus on neuropathology and nosological innovations.

The discipline became institutionalised and the asylum system was expanded. This corpus was thoroughly examined in by this author, who also included a critical assessment of the aforementioned retroactive diagnoses. This is certainly the case compared to more illustrious first-person accounts, such as that of Daniel Paul Schreber, which was popularised by Sigmund Freud; but also — indeed especially — in the English-speaking community.

A more detailed historical and historiographical comparison between his and more famous accounts eg. James Tilly Matthews and Daniel Paul Schreber would undoubtedly shed new light on his story, as would a more literary approach focused on the aesthetics of his work. Neither his biography nor the structure of Nothschrei can be understood without acknowledging the role of Mesmerism in nineteenth-century Germany. He selectively appropriated and adapted mesmerist elements to make sense of his personal issues. Yet he also sought help from doctors.

Fighting for recognition, he courted the expert public; but in so doing he achieved the exact opposite: at the end of his life, he was deemed an exemplary psychiatric case. From this perspective, Nothschrei is only one example of the long tradition of personal narratives of madness, asylums, social deviation and psychiatry which ought to be acknowledged as a bona fide genre by historians of psychiatry and literature alike.

Some copies additionally have an illustrated title page and a brief postscript. All quotations are taken from the Berlin copy and translated by the author. The volume is not uniformly paginated; for the first pagination pp.

See, eg. Mary Sandbach, ed.

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Thorsten Eklund London: Penguin, [first published in ]. My thanks go to Hilde Greefs for providing this information. VN On the beterhuizen , cf. II Amsterdam: Hey, Gartmann, , Hauffe had developed inexplicable convulsions, bleedings and fever after an unhappy love affair.


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This caused a tremendous public stir. Hauffe died three years later. Kerner, op.

II. Other books connected with Hedin's explorations; correspondence.

Engstrom and Volker Roelcke eds , Psychiatrie im Jahrhundert Basel: Schwabe, , 27— The teleological view was particularly held by Ellenberger, op. By , Mesmerism no longer provided a reference of choice for the emerging psychiatric establishment. Nothschrei includes German versions of both texts. Griesinger also cited James Tilly Matthews op. See Eric J. Albert Moll, Hypnotism , 4th edn London: Scott, , Ahlenstiel and Meyer, op.

Hahn, op. Rieger, op. Wunnicke, op. Hahn, Person and Pethes, op. Porter, op. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Med Hist v. Med Hist. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. I would like to thank the editors of this special issue and the anonymous referees for helpful feedback and comments on earlier versions of this paper.

Email address for correspondence: ed. Patient-Centred Historiography as a Historiography of Experience In , Roy Porter exhorted historians to put more emphasis on patient-centred accounts within the social history of medicine.

August Strindberg

In his classic, A Social History of Madness , Porter wrote: Instead of principally reading between the lines, searching out hidden meanings, reconstructing lost childhoods, baring unspoken desires, I wish to explore what mad people meant to say, what was on their minds. And he managed to lose more than a few of his human staff as well. Where possible, I have examined the books de visu.

I have yet to read more than a fraction of them we are told his published works amount to more than 30, pages! My annotation in many cases is based on information in library catalogues; I have also drawn upon the at times extended descriptions of the publications in the biography by George Kish listed below. Over time, I hope to add some notes and perhaps expand this bibliography into categories not yet covered. These limitations notwithstanding, I hope the material will provide a reasonably thorough guide for the interested reader who wishes to traverse Asia and some aspects of twentieth-century politics with Hedin.

Suggestions for corrections and additions would be welcome. The material is divided into four parts: I. Accounts of his Asian travels and exploration, organized by the dates of the expeditions. References include the "full" usually multi-volume texts of his accounts intended for general audiences, condensed variants of the same volumes, and the publications of the "scientific results. Other writings, including books based on his travels which may cut across the chronological boundaries of single expeditions; contributions by him to the history of exploration; correspondence, even if addressed only to Hedin and not from him.

It is possible that some of the books listed here should be connected with a specific expedition listed in part I. Reportage and propaganda not connected with his Asian travels. The listings here cover the most important of the writings reflecting this aspect of his activity; I dwell upon them primarily to identify the titles those who would wish to focus on other issues might prefer to avoid. It is possible that one or two books listed in this category belong in Section II or vice versa.

Works about Hedin.

This section is still embryonic and will eventually be supplemented with references to resources other than full books on him. I also expect to add some links to on-line resources. Travels and Exploration. Leipzig: Brockhaus. Stockholm: Bonniers, His first major travel book. Leipzig: Brockhaus, In series: Reisen und Abenteuer [Travels and Adventures], Most volumes in this popular series run exactly pp. Brockhaus published several of Hedin's works in long [multi-volume], condensed [ pp.

The subject matter is Persia. I am assuming the title "My First Journey" in fact refers to the trip. Issyk-kul, Caucasus, St. Petersburg; initially as a member of a Swedish embassy to Persia; then travelling independently. Hedin's second major book, on the embassy. Halle, He climbed Mt.

Demavend in the Elburz range; see My Life , Ch. Also apparently serialized in 14 issues by Central-Tryckeriet. Very nicely produced, with photos of varying quality and many of his often exquisite sketches. He was a skilled draftsman and artist; some of his best drawings are portraits and panoramas that capture what in a photograph might have been less compelling.

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The "Camp of Death" in the Taklamakan, A later artist's depiction. Through Asia, I, p. Traveled through Russian Central Asia, crossing the Pamirs through what is today Kyrgyzstan; spent substantial time exploring around one of the major peaks, Mustagh Ata, making several unsuccessful attempts to climb it.

He was probably the first person ever to attempt it and did so with no serious mountaineering background. Explored in the Tarim Basin, in the process again showing his impetuosity and at this stage of his career lack of careful planning. In crossing part of the Taklamakan Desert to the Khotan River, only he and two other members of his expedition survived, and that just barely. Was the first Western explorer to see some of the desert ruins later studied by Aurel Stein notably at Dandan-oilik and Karadong.

Artifacts from these and other locations are now in Stockholm; since he himself knew little about what they were, in certain of his works he quotes the observations of the experts who studied them on his return. Crossed the Taklamakan along the Keriya River, began exploring the lower Tarim in the direction of Lop-Nor, and then traveled through previously uncharted areas of the Tsaidam Plateau in Northern Tibet and on to Beijing. German ed. Leipzig: Brockhaus, ; in Danish: Gennem Asiens oeventyrlande.

Copenhagen, Gyldendal, Fritz Gansberg. Hamburg: Janssen, ; ser. Leipzig: Brockhaus, series: Reisen und Abenteuer, 2. This is one of the better reads among his travel accounts, despite the fact that his descriptive prose at times is floridly Victorian. Although the result is a kind of romanticization of some of the more foolish adventures, here as in other volumes, artists not on the expedition drew illustrations of dramatic moments Hedin says they worked carefully with him for accuracy though.

Gotha: J. Scientific reports of the expedition, with contributions by K. Himly et al. As Kish notes in his To the Heart of Asia pp. The accompanying maps were based on his separate sheets drawn from the sketches he made while riding; relatively little involved covering really unexplored territory. Floated down the Tarim until stopped by ice; explored further around and in the dry Lop-Nor basin, visiting the deserted site of ancient Lou-Lan. This work was important for his confirmation of von Richthofen's hypothesis about the "movement" of the lake with the shift in water flow out of the Tarim.

Spent significant time mapping new areas of Northern Tibet, but failed in his attempt to reach Lhasa rather poorly disguised as a pilgrim. Exited Tibet via India. Leipzig: Brockhaus, ; 5. In French: L'Asie inconnue. Paris: Juven, ; also apparently 1 v. Stockholm: Bonniers, ; Abenteuer in Tibet. Leipzig: Brockhaus, ; Shorter German popularization: Abenteuer in Tibet. Leipzig: Brockhaus, ser. Also, much abbreviated account of Tibet in En levnads teckning. Stockholm, Bonniers, Other editions of one or another version published in Milan, Budapest, Christiana, Prague, and Melbourne.

He combined the accounts of his Tibetan explorations esp. New York: E. Stockholm, ; German tr. Leipzig: Brockhaus, ; 4. Stockholm, For a detailed description, see Kish, pp. Despite British and Tibetan opposition to his project, managed to sneak into Tibet, and explored extensively in its southern and western regions. Claimed the discovery of a "previously unknown" major mountain system, the "Trans-Himalaya," and the sources of the major S.

Asian rivers, although these claims were then disputed. Explored extensively on and around Lake Manasarovar. Not by his own choice, spent significant time in Shigatse, where he interacted with the Panchen Lama. Lamas drinking tea in the Court of Ceremonies, Tashi-lunpo, Shigatse. Drawing by Sven Hedin, Transhimalaya, I, ill. Stockholm: Bonniers, , ; Ger.

Entdeckungen und Abenteuer in Tibet. Leipzig: Brockhaus, , ; also 2. The third volume appeared as a supplement, hence some libraries record this as a two-volume edition. Lucknow, Popular condensation from the 3 vol. Leipzig: Brockhaus, ; in series: Reisen und Abenteuer, 2. Another very short condensation, primarily the parts containing his stay in Shigatse, is Wildes heileges Tibet.

Leipzig: Reclam, Tr. Not clear from title whether short Fr. Other eds. See also notation above for A Conquest of Tibet. London: Macmillan, ; repr. Stockholm: Bonniers, ; German ed. Popular short German ed. Leipzig: Brockhaus, ; in series: Reisen und Abenteuer, 8. Travel through Persia, on his way to the Tibetan explorations of As Kish notes pp.

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Stockholm, repr. Delhi, B. Includes: v. Atlas of Tibetan Panoramas; v. Transhimalaya; v. Karakorum and Chang-tang; v. Petrographie und geologie von Anders Henning ; v. History of explorations in the Kara-korum Mountains; v. While clearly he has an agenda here, to emphasize the significance of his own contribution, there is much of value in his extensive review of earlier travels and maps; one of the more interesting volumes Vol. The atlas volumes enable one to compare his numerous panoramas with the finished maps and see details identifying the places at which he made precise observations.

A detailed description of this edition is in Kish, pp. Stockholm: Generalstabens litografiska anstalt, The illustrations and cartographic results of his journey through Persia to India. Included are his photographs, panoramas and detailed maps along with larger summary maps in the atlas. Petersburg and back home. Some interesting photos illustrate the difficulties of motor travel in Mongolia, and towns along the way.

He met the famous Russian explorer Kozlov there. The last third or so of the book is a description of Moscow and various aspects of Russian history and culture, including art and architecture; the final chapter is on St. He had some interest in describing what things were like under the still young Bolshevik regime. The most elaborately equipped of Hedin's expeditions--an army of scholars and others, whose main geographical focus was in Mongolia and the northern and eastern parts of the Tarim Basin. At the outset experienced difficulties with the Chinese authorities, who were beginning to resist Western incursions in China the matter was solved by adding Chinese scholars to the group ; later became a captive during the Dungan rebellion in Xinjiang.

One of the sponsors of the expedition was Lufthansa, which was hoping to open air routes across Inner Asia to China; some of the exploration was avowedly with the idea of re-opening the Silk Road by determining the best routes for motor traffic. Was able to prove convincingly his theories about the "movement" of Lop-Nor, since the rivers fed by the Tarim had changed course in ; the lake was now back in its northern basin.

Explored by motor vehicle the routes through the mountains west from Dunhuang, showing that one branch of the historic Silk Road undoubtedly had run in that direction and to Lop Nor in its northern location until the rivers shifted course. The various specialists in his team often worked on separate itineraries; this was the first of his expeditions which had scholars properly trained to carry out archaeological work.

The initial volumes concerning the expedition were published piecemeal, as it was going on, with the result being some updating between the appearance of one edition and its translation and a certain amount of overlap in contents. London: Routledge, []; New York: E. Dutton, Cant from German ed. Leipzig: Brockhaus, ; 6. Covers explorations, with addition in the English ed. Leipzig, Brockhaus, Sequel to Across the Gobi Desert.

Dutton, Tr. Nash from Swedish: Jehol, kejsarstaden. A copy of the main Buddhist temple in Jehol Chengde was built as an exhibition for the Century of Progress Exposition in Chicago; Hedin was involved in the project. Covers events from departing Beijing, October , through return to Xian in February