## What is the difference between a cost function and a loss function in machine learning?

In the short run, capacity or plant size is fixed. So the firm can vary its level of rate of output up to capacity i. Such a constant MC curve appears as horizontal line parallel to the output axis as in Fig.

If we apply the linear cost function in the cricket bat example we observe that the cost curve assumes the existence of a linear production function. Such a function would exist for the cricket bat factory only if the relevant range of output under consideration was very small. There is a point beyond which TPP is not proportionate.

In other words, there is a point beyond which additional increases in output cannot be made. So costs rise beyond this point, but output cannot. Such cost function is illustrated in Fig.

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We have noted that if the cost function is linear, the equation used in preparing the total cost curve in Fig. Total cost is equal to fixed cost when Q — 0, i.

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However, as Q increases, fixed cost remains unchanged. Therefore, increases in total costs are traceable to changes in variable cost. If the cost function is linear, variable cost increases at a constant rate. It is quite reasonable to assume that linear cost functions exist regardless of the current level of operating capacity at which the firm is producing. Most economists agree that linear cost functions are valid over the relevant range of output for the firm. In traditional economics, we must make use of the cubic cost function as illustrated in Fig. We are trying to develop an equation that will let us to predict units sold based on how much a company spends on radio advertising.

The rows observations represent companies.

## Cost Functions and Marginal Cost Functions

Our algorithm will try to learn the correct values for Weight and Bias. By the end of our training, our equation will approximate the line of best fit.

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What we need is a cost function so we can start optimizing our weights. The output is a single number representing the cost, or score, associated with our current set of weights. Our goal is to minimize MSE to improve the accuracy of our model. Since we need to consider the impact each one has on the final prediction, we use partial derivatives.

To find the partial derivatives, we use the Chain rule.

To solve for the gradient, we iterate through our data points using our new weight and bias values and take the average of the partial derivatives. The resulting gradient tells us the slope of our cost function at our current position i. The size of our update is controlled by the learning rate. Training a model is the process of iteratively improving your prediction equation by looping through the dataset multiple times, each time updating the weight and bias values in the direction indicated by the slope of the cost function gradient.

Training is complete when we reach an acceptable error threshold, or when subsequent training iterations fail to reduce our cost. Before training we need to initialize our weights set default values , set our hyperparameters learning rate and number of iterations , and prepare to log our progress over each iteration. By learning the best values for weight.

As the number of features grows, the complexity of our model increases and it becomes increasingly difficult to visualize, or even comprehend, our data. One solution is to break the data apart and compare features at a time. In this example we explore how Radio and TV investment impacts Sales. As the number of features grows, calculating gradient takes longer to compute.

This is especially important for datasets with high standard deviations or differences in the ranges of the attributes. Our goal now will be to normalize our features so they are all in the range -1 to 1.