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While Cookie Monster tries to eat the pictures, Bob points out to him a sign that says "Please don't eat the pictures. Oscar finds an exhibit of Roman statues that have been broken by natural disasters, he breaks into song on how beautiful they are to him. Grover finds an exhibit filled with armor from medieval times and thinks a suit of Maximilian armour is a guy named "Max" and tries to befriend him by changing into his Super Grover costume and singing a song.

Bert and Ernie view the painting of Washington Crossing the Delaware , to which Bert comments on the dedication of Washington and his men, but Ernie comments how he was silly to cross in the winter and should have waited until Easter or taken the George Washington Bridge ; as the night passes, Big Bird and Snuffy continue to try to figure out the answer to the question. Soon just before midnight Big Bird unknowingly figures out the answer is "a museum. When the feather to weigh his heart doesn't appear, Big Bird offers one of his to help, but when Sahu's heart is too heavy, Big Bird claims that it wasn't fair since Sahu was on Earth for 40 centuries and he was so alone his heart would be heavy, so he can't become a star.

After this, Sahu's heart becomes lighter and he is now ready to join his parents and take his cat. Big Bird and Snuffy exit the museum, look up into the night sky, see four stars in a straight line, are glad that they reunited Sahu with his parents; when morning comes, Big Bird finds Snuffy is not there. He got up early and left to get to "Snufflegarden. After the credits, Big Bird pretends to be a statue. He encourages the viewers to visit their local museum, comments on how staying still is tiring and wonders how statues can do it. In the end, he loves to devour something else.

Sung by three angel monsters. Sung by his friend, Sahu. Bob reminds him that he promised not to eat anything in the museum. Cookie Monster breaks into song, with angelic choral accompaniment, about paintings and mummies , how he understands how important it is t. Magic word Magic words 44 words of power are words which have a specific, sometimes unintended, effect. They are nonsense phrases used in fantasy fiction or by stage prestidigitators; such words are presented as being part of a divine, adamic, or other secret or empowered language. Certain comic book heroes use magic words to activate their powers.

Magic words are used as Easter eggs or cheats in computer games, other software, operating systems. Examples of traditional magic words include: Aajaye — used by the clowns in Jaye's magic circus. Abracadabra — magic word used by magicians. Alakazam — a phrase used by magicians. Hocus pocus — a phrase used by magicians. Izzy wizzy, let's get busy -- Used on The Sooty Show. Jantar Mantar Jadu Mantar — a phrase used by magicians in India. While not intended as magical words in that movie, they were used as such in the spoof horror movie Army of Darkness. Oo ee oo ah ah ting tang walla walla bing bang, phrase used in song " Witch Doctor " performed by Ross Bagdasarian Sr.

Presto chango or Hey Presto — used by magicians. Dante The Magician, circa The line was used by Oscar "Oz" Diggs in Powerful. Shazam — used by the comic book hero Billy Batson to change into Captain Marvel. Shemhamforash -- used by Satanists in rituals of Modern Satanism. Walla Walla Washington — Bugs Bunny in Looney TunesCraig Conley, a scholar of magic, writes that the magic words used by conjurers may originate from " pseudo-Latin phrases, nonsense syllables, or esoteric terms from religious antiquity", but that what they have in common is "language as an instrument of creation".

Software like MediaWiki uses "magic words" to make system information available to templates and editors, such as, which displays the server time: , see Help:Magic words. Hexadecimal "words" used in byte code to identify a specific file or data format are known as magic numbers. The term "magic word" may refer to the word please when used by adults to teach children manners: The single word changes an imperative order into a conditional request, concisely communicating "Do as I say, if it pleases you.

Sesame Street international co-productions Sesame Street international co-productions are educational children's television series based on the American Sesame Street but tailored to the countries in which they are produced. Shortly after the debut of Sesame Street in the United States in , television producers and officials of several countries approached the show's producers and the executives of Sesame Workshop about the possibility of airing international versions of Sesame Street.

Creator Joan Ganz Cooney hired former CBS executive Michael Dann to field offers to produce versions of the show in other countries; the producers of these shows developed them using a variant on the CTW model, a flexible model of production based upon the experiences of the creators and producers of the U.

The model consisted of the combination of producers and researchers working together on the show, the development of a unique curriculum, extensive test screening of the shows; the shows came to be called co-productions, they contained original sets and curriculum goals. Different co-productions were produced, depending upon each country's resources. They included both dubbed versions of the American show and versions created and produced in each country that reflected their needs, educational priorities, culture.

By , there were 20 co-productions in countries all over the world. In , there were more than million viewers of all international versions of Sesame Street, by the US show's 40th anniversary in , they were seen in more than countries. A few months after the debut of Sesame Street on National Educational Television in the United States, producers from Brazil , Canada and Germany requested that the organization responsible for the show's production, the Children's Television Workshop and produce versions of Sesame Street in those countries.

Before the American show's debut, the CTW established an international division, which oversaw its licensing in other countries. According to Gregory J. Gettas, the division developed four main licensing policies: Like the American version, all foreign versions had to be broadcast without commercials. Many years co-creator Joan Ganz Cooney recalled, "To be frank, I was surprised, because we thought we were creating the quintessential American show. We thought the Muppets were quintessentially American, it turns out they're the most international characters created".

Michael Dann, a former CBS executive whom Cooney had hired as a CTW vice-president and her assistant, was assigned to field offers from other countries to produce their own versions of Sesame Street. Dann's appointment led to television critic Marvin Kitman stating, "After he sells in Russia and Czechoslovakia , he might try Mississippi, where it is considered too controversial for educational TV". By summer , Dann had made the first international agreements for what the CTW called "co-productions". The Armed Forces Radio and Television Network agreed to air the first episodes of the US-made show for children of military personnel serving in 16 countries, including Iceland , Greece and South Korea.

During the same period there were discussions about broadcasting the US version in Britain or producing a British version of Sesame Street, but British broadcasters found the show too controversial and rejected the idea; the American version was broadcast throughout the UK on a limited basis starting in , but went off the air in As of , there were 20 active "co-productions". In , CTW vice-president Charlotte Cole estimated that there were more than million viewers of all international versions of Sesame Street, by the show's 40th anniversary in , they were seen in more than countries.

Cole stated, "Children's Television Workshop can be regarded as the single largest informal educator of young children in the world". Studies conducted on the effects of several co-productions found that viewers of these shows gain basic academic skills literacy and numeracy , from watching them. In the Workshop introduced Sesame English , a series focused on teaching children and their families the basics of the English language and on familiarizing them with some aspects of American culture; as of it aired in several countries, including Japan and Italy.

This was the only Sesame Street film to have the involvement of Jim Henson and Richard Hunt before they died in and respectively; the Feathered Friends' Board of Birds, an organization whose purpose is "to place stray birds with nice bird families," discusses the case of Big Bird. However, Big Bird begins to feel distressed in living with the dodos when they insist on calling him "Big Dodo ", the dodos all think poorly of non-birds, suggesting Big Bird should have a bird as a best friend instead of Mr.

Snuffleupagus , which proves to be the last straw for Big Bird. When Big Bird runs away from his new home to head back to Sesame Street, he ends up on the news, Miss Finch tells reporter Kermit the Frog that she intends to reclaim him. His friends on Sesame Street see the news and band together to find him before Miss Finch does, they take different kinds of vehicles on their quest: Gordon, Olivia and Cookie Monster set out in a Volkswagen Beetle , Count von Count departs and drives in the Countmobile and Bert go out to search in an airplane, Grover becomes as Super Grover and flies, Telly Monster , Homer Honker ride with Oscar the Grouch in the Sloppy Jalopy , Bob instructs all of them to head to Toadstool , Indiana where they should meet up with Big Bird.

Big Bird has numerous adventures in his attempt to get home. First, he hitches a ride with a turkey truck driver who encourages him not to give up trying to get to his goal, he meets two kids named Ruthie and Floyd at a farm and sleeps in their barn overnight. The next morning, Big Bird plays with Floyd. On, Big Bird comes to a stop when Miss Finch appears. Ruthie and Floyd tell him to hide in their hay field and Big Bird sneaks away.

After that, Big Bird comes across a cornfield, imagines Snuffy. After Snuffy disappears, Big Bird is spotted by Bert in their plane. Big Bird, however, is unaware that they thinks it's Miss Finch; when Ernie steers it towards Big Bird, he flees in fright. Ernie turns it upside down to get his attention and begins singing "Upside Down World" with Bert beginning to join in singing, but when they turn it back up Big Bird is gone and Ernie blames it on Bert.

Big Bird is sought by two unscrupulous scam artist brothers known as the Sleaze Brothers, consisting of feeble-minded Sid and crafty Sam, who operate a fraudulent carnival called The Sleaze Brothers Funfair , they want to capture him to put him on display. Big Bird arrives in Toadstool. Shortly after arriving, Miss Finch gives chase through the city. On the outskirts, the Sleaze Brothers have set up their carnival and Big Bird shows up asking if they have a place to hide him from Miss Finch. They put him in their "hiding cage.

Despite this, he brings in a lot of customers as Sam is seen backstage during the performance counting their piles of cash. After the show, two kids sneak backstage to see him. Upon noticing them, Big Bird asks them to call Sesame Street to tell his friends, they call them right away. The next morning, his friends find him. However, the Sleaze Brothers wake up. Just as Linda unlocks Big Bird's cage, the Sleaze Brothers drive off in their truck with the cage in tow. Gordon and Olivia give chase in the Volkswagen and succeed in rescuing Big Bird , after telling him to jump from the moving truck.

Shortly afterwards due to speeding, the Sleaze Brothers are pulled over by a police officer and his kid sidekick and arrested on charges of counterfeiting , fraud, impersonating a dentist , apple theft. Miss Finch admits to Big Bird that the Dodos were not perfect for him but says she has found him another bird family. Maria convinces her that he can be, is, happy there on Sesame Street where that it does not make any difference that his family consists of humans, cows, Grouches and the other varieties of eclectic species there.

What matters is that they are family. After considering what she has heard and realizing how far his friends went to try to bring him back, Miss Finch declares that Sesame Street is his home and leaves satisfied. Big Bird is reunited with Snuffy. At the end of the film, Oscar is carried around the block. Produced in , it never aired. Sesame Street has had a history of presenting difficult topics as part of its affective curriculum goals, including death, marriage and disaster.

The producers chose to present his family's experience of divorce; the episode was written by staff writer Norman Stiles , who wrote the episode in which Mr. Hooper's death was explained; every word of the divorce episode was reviewed by the Children's Television Workshop's advisory board, content experts, developmental psychologists.

After tests showed that their young viewers were confused by the episode and did not understand important concepts about divorce, the producers decided to not air it, despite the investment they had made. It was the first time and only time the show's producers made this kind of decision, was cited as an example of the producer's practice of "listening to the voices of children and by putting their needs first", despite the costs.

Sesame Street did not address the topic of divorce until November , when they produced a video for limited audiences titled Little Children , Big Challenges: Divorce as part of their resiliency initiative. Sesame Street, which premiered in , was the first children's television program to use a detailed and comprehensive educational curriculum, with specific educational goals, in its content; the show's goals included both affective objectives.

The cognitive skills of its young viewers were stressed over affective skills, which were addressed indirectly because the producers and researchers believed that focusing on cognitive skills would increase children's self-esteem and feelings of competency. After the show's first season, its critics forced its staff to address affective goals more overtly, which occurred after "extensive research and planning".

According to writer Michael Davis , Sesame Street's curriculum began addressing affective goals more overtly during the s. For example, the producers addressed grief after the death of Will Lee , who had played Mr. Hooper since the show's premiere. Author David Borgenicht called the episode "poignant", Davis called it "a landmark broadcast" and "a memorable episode, one of the show's best". For the and seasons, the topics of love and childbirth were addressed when the show's staff created a storyline in which the characters Luis and Maria fall in love and have a child, Gabi.

Extensive research was done before these episodes were written and produced, to ascertain their focus, after they aired, to analyze the effect they had on viewers; the show addressed real-life disasters. For example, the producers addressed the September 11 terrorist attacks with an episode that aired in early They produced a series of four episodes that aired after Hurricane Katrina in The Children's Television Workshop , the organization responsible for the production of Sesame Street and discussed addressing the topic of divorce for many years before developing an episode; as early as , writer and director Jon Stone expressed his intention of writing a script about it, stating, "My two projects for this year are drugs and divorce.

Divorce is a difficult one. We could do it with puppets. I am writing a script on drugs and peer pressure". Executive producer Dulcy Singer vetoed the idea in While she felt complex social matters should be discussed on the series, she felt the issue was irrelevant to inner city and financially disadvantaged families, the show's target audience, she said that "divorce is a middle-class thing," and suggested instead that an episode focus on a single-parent family, with the child born out of wedlock with an absent father. Singer stated after the episode was filmed, "We were nervous about the show, we didn't think it was a shoo-in.

When you're dealing with something like death, the approach can be universal. But with divorce, it's so personal. People react differently. Puppeteer Jerry Nelson , one of the original performers of Snuffy, noted, "Now we delve into things like divorce that are to affect small children heavily. We didn't touch those things before". Instead of using the human characters in the show's cast, the writers and producers decided to use Muppets to present their narrative about the effects of divorce on young children.

They chose to use the family of Mr. Snuffleupagus , a large Muppet, on the show since Long-time cast member Bob McGrath stated, "They knew they couldn't do it with either of our married couples—Gord. The original meaning of the GMA acronym was Greater Manila Area , referring to the initial coverage area of the station; as the network expanded it changed into Global Media Arts. Venturing into television in the s, Stewart started its television station, upon the establishment of RBS TV Channel 7 on October 29, , becoming the Philippines' fourth terrestrial television station.

In the same year, from Loreto F. On September 21, President Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law by the virtue of Proclamation Marcos, ruling by decree, curtailed other civil liberties. Military personnel occupied GMA Network compound and placed it under military control to prevent alleged communist propaganda. Media outlets including RBS, critical to the Marcos administration were ordered to be closed, but in late-December , RBS gave the green light by the government to return on the air this time by its blocktime agreement with the National Media Production Center , however with limited three-month permits.

But due to limited licenses, difficulty in financial obligations, disallowing foreign citizens and entities from owning and operating media companies in the Philippines and the American Broadcasting Company, who owned a quarter of the company, was forced to cede majority control to a triumvirate composed of Gilberto Duavit Sr. His wife Loring was the president; the relaunched GMA, aside from sporting a light blue square logo with the network name in white had a circle 7 logo in use, in its final years the blue circle 7 logo used was similar to those used by the ABC in some United States cities.

Through the acquisition, the station was able to broadcast in color with a PhP8 million credit line thru buying telecine machines and acquired foreign programs. Ratings were up from 5 to 3 that time; when Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino, Jr. The iron grip that the Marcos administration had on television began to slip, as GMA broadcast the funeral, the only local station to do so.

However, the takeover was prevented by GMA executives. Stewart left the Philippines for good. Susa, Ecbatana, and Persepolis were celebrated cities of Persia and occasionally the residence of the royal family. During the historical period Greece produced many men of wonderful characters and talents, with whose names and deeds we are familiar. All were versatile to a degree almost beyond our comprehension, and the character of one, Alcibiades, who plays a large part in the pages of Thucydides and Xenophon, was unique even for his time.

A disciple of Socrates, he was one of the most extraordinary men of antiquity. He united in his person almost every good quality and almost every bad one. He was, by turns, the glory and the scourge of his fellow-citizens. Thirst for power and the desire of pleasing were the predominant features of his character; and it was chiefly by means of the second that he satisfied the first. To a pleasing figure and a ravishing exterior he joined all the powers of the mind and all the charms of elocution. The people liked his courage, they admired his manners, and, in truth, taken altogether, he was irresistible.

Faults, which he took no pains to conceal, they pardoned; and if at any time they were forced to condemn him for his misdemeanours they soon hastened to recall him to their favour. It was Alcibiades who planned the expedition against Sicily, and it has been thought that it might have succeeded Edition: current; Page: [ xvi ] if he had been placed and continued at the head of it. He was, however, displaced by his fellow-citizens; but, doubting this judgment of his actions, he went over to the enemy, and was the principal cause of the disasters which befell the Athenians.

His country being upon the brink of ruin, he was recalled. Putting himself at the head of the army of Athens, he beat her antagonists by land and sea, re-established her affairs, and returned to the city covered with laurels. Banished a second time, he entered again into the interests of Persia. Finally, being equally dreaded by his friends and foes, they united to destroy him. Assassins were employed to set fire in the night to a cabin which merely served to shelter him from the inclemency of the weather, and, as he attempted to fly from the the flames, they pierced him to death with arrows.

Thus perished the great, the gay, the licentious Alcibiades, who, during the whole course of his life, was, emphatically, all things to all men. Among the great men of Greece we may reckon the celebrated Pericles, the husband of Aspasia, that remarkable woman who taught eloquence to Socrates, who was well skilled in politics, and whose excellent qualities, obscuring her vices, served to impress Pericles with respect for her intellect, as well as to inspire him with a greater degree of devotion to her charms.

Pericles governed the Athenians nearly his whole lifetime; not by force of arms, but by the power of his genius and the force of his eloquence. No person ever presented in a greater degree than he did the faculty of subjugating the multitude to his will by the arts of Edition: current; Page: [ xvii ] popular seduction. By some it was said that the sovereign of the Gods had confided to him the thunder and the lightning; by others, that the goddess of persuasion dwelt on his lips, adorned with all her graces.

He filled Athens with the master-works of art, and distributed to the multitude, in largesses or entertainments, the riches of the republic. His reign was that of the fine arts, which under him attained the highest point of perfection. A difficulty in making out a fair statement of his accounts, and the hope that he still might be enabled to preserve his authority by a change of circumstances, were the causes that induced Pericles to plunge Athens into the Peloponnesian war, which was as fatal to him as it was to his country. He died of the plague which prevailed during the first campaign of that contest.

Chroniclers tell us that whenever Godfrey de Boillon entered a church splendid with painted glass and painted carvings he would stand for hours gazing at the saintly figures, unmindful of the passage of time, while reading the sacred legends and causing the histories of the saints to be recounted to him. He who enters the door of knowledge opened by these volumes and travels the world of the Ancients with Herodotus, Thucydides, and Xenophon will emerge as from a dream-journey filled with pleasure and profit, which shall remain his until heart and mind have ceased to know and to enjoy.

With full truth it may be said that Herodotus invented history writing as we know it to-day—an art beyond story-telling, yet possessing all the force of the deepest human interest. He spent a large part of his life in travelling. His history was designed to record not only the wars but the causes of the wars between Greece and the Barbarians. In these volumes Herodotus is presented to the reader in his two-fold character—as the profound historian and as the fascinating story-teller.

The man is to be envied who has before him the pleasure of reading these works for the first time. It is an inspiration to follow his glowing account of these events. Few pages of history are so well worth the Edition: current; Page: [ xix ] reading. Scenes of a magnificent drama are made to pass, one after another, before us. The history of Herodotus is the beginning of Greek prose. In reading him we feel very strongly that the style is the man, possibly because we know so little of the man.

In any case the character revealed by the style is sympathetic in a high degree. Probably few writers in any age or country have so many devoted personal friends as Herodotus counts among his readers. He is so simple, so frank, so talkative, amiable and respectworthy. He wrote indeed not to be read, but to be heard, like all other classical Greek authors, and he read his history in public in Athens and other places. But, beyond the charm of style, Herodotus had the knack of taking interest in the right things.

Two characteristics of Herodotus should not escape our notice—characteristics which seem almost inconsistent with each other—his desire for accurate information, and his love of the marvellous. To the first we owe his tours of exploration, which carried him over the larger part of the known world; to the second, those episodes, founded to a greater or less extent in fact—but fact handled with poetic freedom—which give to his history a poetic charm.

These stories, as we may call them, are of the most varied character. They are told with the utmost simplicity of language, and, written as they were in the youth of the world, they have traits in common with the Old Testament narratives of the childhood of Moses and Joseph. Turning, as many of them do, upon the sudden and terrible changes in human fortune—upon the ebb and flow in mortal affairs which Herodotus ascribes to the envy of the Gods—they abound in sayings of a touching pathos, often quoted as strikingly characteristic of the author.

Dionysius, the greatest of all the Greek critics, in comparing Herodotus with other writers, points to the superior artistic skill which the historian displays in the choice of his subject and the manner of treating it. Considered as a logographer, nothing can be said too highly in praise of Herodotus. The local traditions which embodied in a mythical form the early history of the several states,—the popular poetry which embalmed the memory of the worthies of the past,—the peculiar customs prevailing at the religious festivals, to every one of which was attached some story to explain it,—would furnish a mass of materials not less valuable for his purpose than formal historical documents.

Herodotus was guided by no modern spirit of criticism in the collection or selection of his materials. We must be satisfied to enjoy his work as a composition of surpassing beauty and interest, reading it as a contemporary would have done. It would, however, be a great error to dismiss the reader to the pages of Herodotus under the impression that while his materials were very different from those at the hand of a modern historian, his work is deficient in historical Edition: current; Page: [ xxii ] value. The very phenomena discoverable in it, and which take it out of the category of histories such as those of Tacitus or Thucydides, will increase our conviction of the fidelity with which it reflects the current opinions, feelings and habits of the time in which it was written.

A candid reader who will read the history through, unhampered by any theory, simply putting himself in the position of a Greek of the fifth century before the Christian era, will probably not doubt that the author saw much with his own eyes—more than any other man of his time. Herodotus satisfies us fully as the most fascinating of Greek prose writers. He illustrates perfectly the habits and feelings of the time in which he lived, and awakens attention to the common motives of human action exhibited in forms belonging to a state of things which has long passed away.

The merits of Herodotus as a writer have never been questioned. Those who make the lowest estimate of his qualifications as an historian, are profuse in their acknowledgment of his beauties of composition and style, by which they consider that other commentators upon his work have been unduly biased in his favour, and led to overrate his historical accuracy. Scarcely a dissentient voice is to be found on this point among critical authorities, whether ancient or modern, who all agree in upholding our author as a model of his own peculiar order of composition.

Herodotus, by selecting for the subject of his work a special portion of the history of Greece and confining himself to the narration of events having a bearing, direct or indirect, upon his main topic, has obtained a unity of action sufficient to satisfy the most stringent Edition: current; Page: [ xxiii ] demands of art, equal, indeed, to that which characterises the masterpieces of the imagination. Instead of undertaking the complex and difficult task of writing the history of the Hellenic race during a given period, he sits down with the one primary object of faithfully recording the events of a particular war.

The real intention of Herodotus was to write the history of the Persian War of Invasion—the contest which commenced with the first expedition of Mardonius, and terminated with the entire discomfiture of the vast fleet and army collected and led against Greece by Xerxes. The portion of his narrative which is anterior to the expedition of Mardonius is of the nature of an introduction, and in this a double design may be traced.

The main object of the writer was to give an account of the rise, growth, and progress of the great empire which had been the antagonist of Greece in the struggle, and his secondary aim to note the previous occasions whereon the two races had been brought into hostile contact. Both these points are connected intimately with the principal object of the history, the one being necessary in order to a correct appreciation of the greatness of the contest and the glory gained by those with whom the victory rested; and the other giving the causes from which the quarrel Edition: current; Page: [ xxiv ] sprang, and throwing important light on the course of the invasion and the conduct of the invaders.

Had Herodotus confined himself rigidly to these three inter-connected heads of narration, the growth of the Persian Empire, the previous hostilities between Greece and Persia, and the actual conduct of the great war, his history would have been meagre and deficient in variety. To avoid this consequence, he takes every opportunity which presents itself of diverging from his main narrative and interweaving with it the vast stores of his varied knowledge, whether historical, geographical, or antiquarian.

The power of Herodotus to portray female character is worthy of notice. Unlike Thucydides, who passes over in contemptuous silence the part played by women in the transactions which he undertakes to record, Herodotus seizes every opportunity of adding variety and zest to his narrative by carefully introducing to our notice the feminine element involved in his events.

THESE are the researches of Herodotus of Halicarnassus, 1 which he publishes, in the hope of thereby preserving from decay the remembrance of what men have done, and of preventing the great and wonderful actions of the Greeks and the Barbarians 2 from losing their due meed of glory; and withal to put on record what were their grounds of feud. Now as for the carrying off of women, it is the deed, they say, of a rogue; but to make a stir about such as are carried off, argues a man a fool.

Men of sense care nothing for such women, since it is plain that without their own consent they would never be forced away. Henceforth they ever looked upon the Greeks as their open enemies. For Asia, with all the various tribes of barbarians that inhabit it, is regarded by the Persians as their own; but Europe and the Greek race they look on as distinct and separate. Such is the account which the Persians give of these matters. They trace to the attack upon Troy their ancient enmity towards the Greeks.

Whether this latter account be true, or whether the matter happened otherwise, I shall not discuss further. I shall proceed at once to point out the person who first within my own knowledge inflicted injury on the Greeks, after which I shall go forward with my history, describing equally the greater and the lesser cities. For the cities which were formerly great, have most of them become insignificant; and such as are at present powerful, were weak in the olden time.

I shall therefore discourse equally of both, convinced that human happiness never continues long in one stay. This stream, which separates Syria from Paphlagonia, runs with a course from south to north, and finally falls into the Euxine. So far as our knowledge goes, he was the first of the barbarians who had dealings with the Greeks, forcing some of them to become his tributaries, and entering into alliance with others. Up to that time all Greeks had been free. There was a certain king of Sardis, Candaules by name, whom the Greeks called Myrsilus.

The kings who reigned before Agron sprang from Lydus, son of Atys, from whom the people of the land, called previously Meonians, received the name of Lydians. The Heraclides, descended from Hercules and the slavegirl of Jardanus, having been entrusted by these princes with the management of affairs, obtained the kingdom by an oracle.

Now it happened that this Candaules was in love with his own wife; and not only so, but thought her the fairest woman in the whole world. This fancy had strange consequences. There was in his body-guard a man whom he specially favoured, Gyges, the son of Dascylus. All affairs of greatest moment were entrusted by Candaules to this person, and to him he was wont to extol the surpassing beauty of his wife. So matters went on for a while. Wouldst thou have me behold my mistress when she is naked?

Bethink thee that a woman, with her clothes, puts off her bashfulness. Our fathers, in time past, distinguished right and wrong plainly enough, and it is our wisdom to submit to be taught by them. Only, I beseech thee, ask me not to do wickedly. Be sure I will so manage that she shall not even know that thou hast looked upon her. I will place thee behind the open door of the chamber in which we sleep.

When I enter to go to rest she will follow me. There stands a chair close to the entrance, on which she will lay her clothes one by one as she takes them off. Thou wilt be able thus at thy leisure to peruse her person. Then, when she is moving from the chair toward the bed, and her back is turned on thee, be it thy care that she see thee not as thou passest through the doorway.

Gyges, unable to escape, could but declare his readiness. Then Candaules, when bedtime came, led Gyges into his sleeping-chamber, and a moment after the queen followed. She entered, and laid her garments on the chair, and Gyges gazed on her. After a while she moved toward the bed, and her back being then turned, he glided stealthily from the apartment. As he was passing out, however, she saw him, and instantly divining what had happened, she neither Edition: current; Page: [ 35 ] screamed as her shame impelled her, nor even appeared to have noticed aught, purposing to take vengeance upon the husband who had so affronted her.

For among the Lydians, and indeed among the barbarians generally, it is reckoned a deep disgrace, even to a man, to be seen naked. No sound or sign of intelligence escaped her at the time. But in the morning, as soon as day broke, she hastened to choose from among her retinue, such as she knew to be most faithful to her, and preparing them for what was to ensue, summoned Gyges into her presence.

Now it had often happened before that the queen had desired to confer with him, and he was accustomed to come to her at her call.


  1. Deirdre des douleurs (French Edition).
  2. The Initial Assessment and Management of the Trauma Patient;
  3. A Childs Wish.
  4. Zur Produktivität sozialer Konflikte (VS College) (German Edition).
  5. Betrayal (African American Urban Ethnic Erotica)?
  6. The Foresters Notebook;

He therefore obeyed the summons, not expecting that she knew aught of what had occurred. Slay Candaules, and thereby become my lord, and obtain the Lydian throne, or die this moment in his room. So wilt thou not again, obeying all behests of thy master, behold what is not lawful for thee. It must needs be, that either he perish by whose counsel this thing was done, or thou, who sawest me naked, and so didst break our usages.

All was then prepared for the attack, and when night fell, Gyges, seeing that he had no retreat or escape, but must absolutely either slay Candaules, or himself be slain, followed his mistress into the sleeping-room. She placed a dagger in his hand, and hid him carefully behind the self-same door. Then Gyges, when the king was fallen asleep, entered privily into the chamber and struck him dead.

Thus did the wife and kingdom of Candaules pass into the possession of Gyges, of whom Archilochus the Parian, who lived about the same time, made mention in a poem written in Iambic trimeter verse. Gyges was afterwards confirmed in the possession of the throne by an answer of the Delphic oracle. Enraged at the murder of their king, the people flew to arms, but after a while the partisans of Gyges came to terms with them, and it was agreed that if the Delphic oracle declared Edition: current; Page: [ 37 ] him king of the Lydians, he should reign; if otherwise, he should yield the throne to the Heraclides.

As the oracle was given in his favour he became king. The Pythoness, however, added that, in the fifth generation from Gyges, vengeance should come for the Heraclides; a prophecy of which neither the Lydians nor their princes took any account till it was fulfilled. When Gyges was established on the throne, he sent no small present to Delphi, as his many silver offerings at the Delphic shrine testify. Besides this silver he gave a vast number of vessels of gold, among which the most worthy of mention are the goblets, six in number, and weighing altogether thirty talents, which stand in the Corinthian treasury, dedicated by him.

I call it the Corinthian treasury, though in strictness of speech it is the treasury not of the whole Corinthian people, but of Cypselus, son of Eetion. Excepting Midas, son of Gordias, king of Phrygia, Gyges was the first of the barbarians whom we know to have sent offerings to Delphi. Midas dedicated the royal throne whereon he was accustomed to sit and administer justice, an object well worth looking at. It lies in the same place as the goblets presented by Gyges. The Delphians call the whole of the Edition: current; Page: [ 38 ] silver and the gold which Gyges dedicated, after the name of the donor, Gygian.

As soon as Gyges was king he made an inroad on Miletus and Smyrna, and took the city of Colophon. Afterwards, however, though he reigned eight and thirty years, he did not perform a single noble exploit. I shall therefore make no further mention of him, but pass on to his son and successor in the kingdom, Ardys. In his reign the Cimmerians, driven from their homes by the nomades of Scythia, entered Asia and captured Sardis, all but the citadel. He reigned forty-nine years, and was succeeded by his son, Sadyattes, who reigned twelve years.

At his death his son Alyattes mounted the throne. From this last contest he did not come off as he could have wished, but met with a sore defeat; still, however, in the course of his reign, he performed other actions very worthy of note, of which I will now proceed to give an account. Inheriting from his father a war with the Milesians, he pressed the siege against the city by attacking it in the following manner. When the harvest was ripe on the ground he marched Edition: current; Page: [ 39 ] his army into Milesia to the sound of pipes and harps, and flutes masculine and feminine.

The buildings that were scattered over the country he neither pulled down nor burnt, nor did he even tear away the doors, but left them standing as they were. He cut down, however, and utterly destroyed all the trees and all the corn throughout the land, and then returned to his own dominions.

It was idle for his army to sit down before the place, as the Milesians were masters of the sea. The reason that he did not demolish their buildings was, that the inhabitants might be tempted to use them as homesteads from which to go forth to sow and till their lands; and so each time that he invaded the country he might find something to plunder. During six of these eleven years, Sadyattes, the son of Ardys, who first lighted the flames of this war, was king of Lydia, and made the incursions. Only the five following years belong to the reign of Alyattes, son of Sadyattes, who as I said before , inheriting the war from his father, applied himself to it unremittingly.

It was in the twelfth year of the war that the following mischance occurred from the firing of the harvest-fields. Scarcely had the corn been set alight by the soldiers when a violent wind carried the flames against the temple of Minerva Assesia, which caught fire and was burnt to the ground. At the time no one made any account of the circumstance; but afterwards, on the return of the army to Sardis, Alyattes fell sick. His illness continued, whereupon, either advised thereto by some friend, or perchance himself conceiving the idea, he sent messengers to Delphi to inquire of the god concerning his malady.

Thus much I know from information given me by the Delphians; the remainder of the story the Milesians add. The answer made by the oracle came to the ears of Periander, son of Cypselus, who was a very close friend to Thrasybulus, tyrant of Miletus at that period. He instantly despatched a messenger to report the oracle to him, in order Edition: current; Page: [ 41 ] that Thrasybulus, forewarned of its tenor, might the better adapt his measures to the posture of affairs.

Alyattes, the moment that the words of the oracle were reported to him, sent a herald to Miletus in hopes of concluding a truce with Thrasybulus and the Milesians for such a time as was needed to rebuild the temple. The herald went upon his way; but meantime Thrasybulus had been apprised of everything; and conjecturing what Alyattes would do, he contrived this artifice. He had all the corn that was in the city, whether belonging to himself or to private persons, brought into the market-place, and issued an order that the Milesians should hold themselves in readiness, and, when he gave the signal, should, one and all, fall to drinking and revelry.

The purpose for which he gave these orders was the following. He hoped that the Sardian herald, seeing so great store of corn upon the ground, and all the city given up to festivity, would inform Alyattes of it, which fell out as he anticipated.


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  • The herald observed the whole, and when he had delivered his message, went back to Sardis. This circumstance alone, as I gather, brought about the peace which ensued. Alyattes, who had hoped that there was now a great scarcity of corn in Miletus, and that the people were worn down to the last pitch of Edition: current; Page: [ 42 ] suffering, when he heard from the herald on his return from Miletus tidings so contrary to those he had expected, made a treaty with the enemy by which the two nations became close friends and allies. Such were the chief circumstances of the war which Alyattes waged with Thrasybulus and the Milesians.

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    This Periander, who apprised Thrasybulus of the oracle, was son of Cypselus, and tyrant of Corinth. In his time a very wonderful thing is said to have happened. The Corinthians and the Lesbians agree in their account of the matter. He had lived for many years at the court of Periander, when a longing came upon him to sail across to Italy and Sicily. Having made rich profits in those parts, he wanted to recross the seas to Corinth. He therefore hired a vessel, the crew of which were Corinthians, thinking that there was no people in whom he could more safely confide; and, going on board, he set sail from Tarentum.

    The sailors, however, when Edition: current; Page: [ 43 ] they reached the open sea, formed a plot to throw him overboard and seize upon his riches. Discovering their design, he fell on his knees, beseeching them to spare his life, and making them welcome to his money. But they refused; and required him either to kill himself outright, if he wished for a grave on the dry land, or without loss of time to leap overboard into the sea. In this strait Arion begged them, since such was their pleasure, to allow him to mount upon the quarter-deck, dressed in his full costume, and there to play and sing, promising that, as soon as his song was ended, he would destroy himself.

    Delighted at the prospect of hearing the very best harper in the world, they consented, and withdrew from the stern to the middle of the vessel: while Arion dressed himself in the full costume of his calling, took his harp, and standing on the quarter-deck, chanted the Orthian.

    His strain ended, he flung himself, fully attired as he was, headlong into the sea. The Corinthians then sailed on to Corinth. Periander, however, disbelieved the story, and put Arion in ward, to prevent his leaving Corinth, while he watched anxiously for the return of the mariners. On their arrival he summoned Edition: current; Page: [ 44 ] them before him and asked them if they could give him any tidings of Arion.

    They returned for answer that he was alive and in good health in Italy, and that they had left him at Tarentum, where he was doing well. Thereupon Arion appeared before them, just as he was when he jumped from the vessel: the men, astonished and detected in falsehood, could no longer deny their guilt. Having brought the war with the Milesians to a close, and reigned over the land of Lydia for fifty-seven years, Alyattes died. He was the second prince of his house who made offerings at Delphi. His gifts, which he sent on recovering from his sickness, were a great bowl of pure silver, with a salver in steel curiously Edition: current; Page: [ 45 ] inlaid, a work among all the offerings at Delphi the best worth looking at.

    Glaucus, the Chian, made it, the man who first invented the art of inlaying steel. Of the Greek cities, Ephesus was the first that he attacked. They were, as I said, the first Greeks whom he attacked. In this way he made himself master of all the Greek cities in Asia, and forced them to become his tributaries; after which he began to think of building ships, and attacking the islanders.

    But what thinkest thou the islanders desire better, now that they hear thou art about to build ships and sail against them, than to catch the Lydians at sea, and there revenge on them the wrongs of their brothers upon the mainland, whom thou holdest in slavery? The Lycians and Cilicians alone continued free; all the other tribes he reduced and held in subjection.

    When all these conquests had been added Edition: current; Page: [ 47 ] to the Lydian empire, and the prosperity of Sardis was now at its height, there came thither one after another, all the sages of Greece living at the time, and among them Solon, the Athenian. Without his sanction the Athenians could not repeal them, as they had bound themselves under a heavy curse to be governed for ten years by the laws which should be imposed on them by Solon.

    On the third or fourth day after, he bade his servants conduct Solon over his treasuries, and show him all Edition: current; Page: [ 48 ] their greatness and magnificence. I am curious therefore to inquire of thee, whom, of all the men that thou hast seen, thou deemest the most happy? In a battle between the Athenians and their neighbours near Eleusis, he came to the assistance of his countrymen, routed the foe, and died upon the field most gallantly.

    The Athenians gave him a public funeral on the spot where he fell, and paid him the highest honours. Also this tale is told of them:—There was a great festival in honour of the goddess Juno at Argos, to which their mother must needs be taken in a car. Now the oxen did not come home from the field in time; so the youths, fearful of being too late, put the yoke on their own necks, and themselves drew the car in which their mother rode.

    Five and forty furlongs did they draw her, and stopped before the temple. This deed of theirs was witnessed by the whole assembly of worshippers, and then their life closed in the best possible way. Herein, too, God showed forth most evidently, how much better a thing for man death is than life. For the Argive men, who stood around the car, extolled the vast strength of the youths; and the Argive women extolled the mother who was blessed with such a pair of sons; and the mother herself, overjoyed at the deed and at the praises it had won, standing straight before the image, besought the goddess to bestow on Cleobis and Bito, the sons who had Edition: current; Page: [ 50 ] so mightily honoured her, the highest blessing to which mortals can attain.

    Her prayer ended, they offered sacrifice and partook of the holy banquet, after which the two youths fell asleep in the temple. They never woke more, but so passed from the earth. The Argives, looking on them as among the best of men, caused statues of them to be made, which they gave to the shrine at Delphi.

    A long life gives one to witness much, and experience much oneself, that one would not choose.

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    Seventy years I regard as the limit of the life of man. In these seventy years are contained, without reckoning intercalary months, twenty-five thousand and two hundred days. Add an intercalary month to every other year, that the seasons may come round at the right time, and there will be, besides the seventy years, thirty-five such months, making an addition of one thousand and fifty days.

    The whole number Edition: current; Page: [ 51 ] of the days contained in the seventy years will thus be twenty-six thousand two hundred and fifty, 7 whereof not one but will produce events unlike the rest. Hence man is wholly accident. For thyself, oh! For assuredly he who possesses great store of riches is no nearer happiness than he who has what suffices for his daily needs, unless it so hap that luck attend upon him, and so he continue in the enjoyment of all his good things to the end of life.

    For many of the wealthiest men have been unfavoured of fortune, and many whose means were moderate have had excellent Edition: current; Page: [ 52 ] luck. Men of the former class excel those of the latter but in two respects; these last excel the former in many. The wealthy man is better able to content his desires, and to bear up against a sudden buffet of calamity.

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    The other has less ability to withstand these evils from which, however, his good luck keeps him clear , but he enjoys all these following blessings: he is whole of limb, a stranger to disease, free from misfortune, happy in his children, and comely to look upon. If, in addition to all this, he end his life well, he is of a truth the man of whom thou art in search, the man who may rightly be termed happy. Call him, however, until he die, not happy but fortunate.

    Scarcely, indeed, can any man unite all these advantages: as there is no country which contains within it all that it needs, but each, while it possesses some things, lacks others, and the best country is that which contains the most; so no single human being is complete in every respect—something is always lacking.

    The king saw him depart with much indifference, since he thought that a man must be an arrant fool who made no account of present good, but bade men always wait and mark the end. First he had a dream in the night, which foreshowed him truly the evils that were about to befall him in the person of his son. The name of the last was Atys. It was this son concerning whom he dreamt a dream, that he would die by the blow of an iron weapon.

    When he woke, he considered earnestly with himself, and, greatly alarmed at the dream, instantly made his son take a wife, and whereas in former years the youth had been wont to command the Lydian forces in the field, he now would not suffer him to accompany them. All the spears and javelins, and weapons used in the wars, he removed out of the male apartments, and laid them in heaps in the chambers of the women, fearing lest perhaps one of the weapons that hung against the wall might fall and strike him.

    Now it chanced that while he was making arrangements for the wedding, there came to Sardis a man under a misfortune, who had upon him the stain of blood. He was by race a Phrygian, and belonged to the family of the king. Now the Lydian method of purifying is very nearly the same as the Greek.

    And whom, moreover, what man or what woman, hast thou slain? I am named Adrastus. The man I unintentionally slew was my own brother. For this my father drove me from the land, and I lost all. Then fled I here to thee. Thou shalt want for nothing so long as thou abidest in my dominions. Bear thy misfortune as easily as thou mayest, so will it go best with thee. It chanced that at this very same time there was in the Mysian Olympus a huge monster Edition: current; Page: [ 55 ] of a boar, which went forth often from this mountain-country, and wasted the corn-fields of the Mysians.

    Many a time had the Mysians collected to hunt the beast, but instead of doing him any hurt, they came off always with some loss to themselves. We do our best to take him, but in vain. Now therefore we beseech thee to let thy son accompany us back, with some chosen youths and hounds, that we may rid our country of the animal. He is but just joined in wedlock, and is busy enough with that.

    I will grant you a picked band of Lydians, and all my huntsmen and hounds; and I will charge those whom I send to use all zeal in aiding you to rid your country of the brute. What face meanwhile must I wear as I walk to the forum or return from it? What must the citizens, what must my young bride think of me? What sort of man will she suppose her husband to be? Either, therefore, let me go to the chase of this boar, or give me a reason why it is best for me to do according to thy wishes. It was this which first led me to hasten on thy wedding, and now it hinders me from sending thee upon this enterprise.

    Fain would I keep watch over thee, if by any means I may cheat fate of thee during my own lifetime. For thou art the one and only son that I possess; the other, whose hearing is destroyed, I regard as if he were not. Now the dream, thou saidst thyself foretold that I should die stricken by an iron weapon. But what hands has a boar to strike with? What iron weapon does he wield? Yet this is what thou fearest for me. Had the dream said that I should die pierced by a tusk, then thou hadst done well to keep me away; but it said a weapon.

    Now here we do not combat men, but a wild animal. I pray thee, therefore, let me go with them. I yield to it, and change my mind, and consent to let thee go. Now, therefore, it behoves thee to requite the good offices which thou hast received at my hands by consenting to go with my son on this hunting party, and to watch over him, if perchance you should be attacked upon the road by some band of daring robbers.

    Even apart from this, it were right for thee to go where thou mayest make thyself famous by noble deeds. They are the heritage of thy family, and thou too art so stalwart and strong. On many grounds I had stayed behind; but, as thou urgest it, and I am bound to pleasure thee for truly it does behove me to requite thy good offices , I am content to do as thou wishest. When they reached Olympus, they scattered in quest of the animal; he was soon found, and the hunters, drawing round him in a circle, hurled their weapons at him.

    Then the stranger, the man who had been purified of blood, whose name was Adrastus, he also hurled his spear at the boar, but missed his aim, and struck Atys. Then one ran to Sardis to bear the tidings to the king, and he came and informed him of the combat and of the fate that had befallen his son. If it was a heavy blow to the father to learn that his child was dead, it yet more Edition: current; Page: [ 59 ] strongly affected him to think that the very man whom he himself once purified had done the deed.

    Presently the Lydians arrived, bearing the body of the youth, and behind them followed the homicide. But in sooth it is not thou who hast injured me, except so far as thou hast unwittingly dealt the blow. Edition: current; Page: [ 60 ] Some god is the author of my misfortune, and I was forewarned of it a long time ago. Adrastus, son of Gordias, son of Midas, the destroyer of his brother in time past, the destroyer now of his purifier, regarding himself as the most unfortunate wretch whom he had ever known, so soon as all was quiet about the place, slew himself upon the tomb.

    He learnt that Cyrus, the son of Cambyses, had destroyed the empire of Astyages, the son of Cyaxares; and that the Persians were becoming daily more powerful. This led him to consider with himself whether it were possible to check the growing power of that people before it came to a head. With this design he resolved to make instant trial of the several oracles in Greece, and of the one in Libya.

    These were the Greek oracles which he consulted. To Libya he sent another embassy, to consult the oracle of Ammon. These messengers were sent to test the knowledge of the oracles, that, Edition: current; Page: [ 61 ] if they were found really to return true answers, he might send a second time, and inquire if he ought to attack the Persians.

    The answers given them were to be taken down in writing, and brought back to him.

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    None of the replies remain on record except that of the oracle at Delphi. There, the moment that the Lydians entered the sanctuary, and before they put their questions, the Pythoness thus answered them in hexameter verse:. These words the Lydians wrote down at the mouth of the Pythoness as she prophesied, and then set off on their return to Sardis. Only one approved itself to him, that of the Delphic oracle. This he had no sooner heard than he instantly made an act of adoration, and accepted it as true, declaring that the Delphic was the only really oracular shrine, the only one that had discovered in what way he was in fact employed.

    For on the departure of his messengers he had set himself to think what was most impossible for any one to conceive of his doing, and then, waiting till the day agreed on came, he acted as he had determined. He took a tortoise and a lamb, and cutting them in pieces with his own hands, boiled them both together in a brazen cauldron, covered over with a lid which was also of brass. Further, he issued his orders to all the people of the land to offer a sacrifice according to their means. When the sacrifice was ended, the king melted down a vast quantity of gold, and ran it into ingots, making them six palms long, three palms broad, and one palm in thickness.

    The number of ingots was a hundred and seventeen, four being of refined gold, in weight two talents and a half; the others of pale gold, and in weight two talents. He also caused a statue of a lion to be made in refined gold, the weight of which was ten talents. At the time when the temple of Delphi was burnt to the ground, this lion fell from the ingots on which it was placed; it now stands in the Corinthian treasury, and weighs only six talents and a half, having lost three talents and a half by the fire.

    This is known, because the Delphians fill it at the time of the Theophania. It is said by the Delphians to be a work of Theodore the Samian, and I think that they say true, for assuredly it is the work of no common artist. His name is known to me, but I forbear to mention it. Also he dedicated a female figure in gold, three cubits high, which is said by the Delphians to be the statue of his baking-woman; and further, he presented the necklace and the girdles of his wife. They were still existing in my day at Thebes, laid up in the temple of Ismenian Apollo. Of all the answers that had reached him, this pleased him far the best, for it seemed incredible that a mule should ever come to be king of the Medes, and so he concluded that the sovereignty would never depart from himself or his seed after him.

    Afterwards he turned his Edition: current; Page: [ 67 ] thoughts to the alliance which he had been recommended to contract, and sought to ascertain by inquiry which was the most powerful of the Grecian states. His inquiries pointed out to him two states as pre-eminent above the rest. Hence they once more removed and came to Dryopis; and from Dryopis, having entered the Peloponnese in this way, they became known as Dorians.

    What the language of the Pelasgi was I cannot say with any certainty. If this were really so, and the entire Pelasgic race spoke the same tongue, the Athenians, who were certainly Pelasgi, must have changed their language at the same time that they passed into the Hellenic body; for it is a certain fact that the people of Creston speak a language unlike any of their neighbours, and the same is true of the Placianians, while the language spoken by these two people is the same; which shows that they both retain the idiom which they brought with them into the countries where they are now settled.

    The Hellenic race has never, since its first origin, changed its speech. This at least seems evident to me. It was a branch of the Pelasgic, which separated from the main body, and at first was scanty in numbers and of little power; but it gradually spread and increased to a multitude of nations, chiefly by the voluntary entrance into its ranks of numerous tribes of barbarians. The Pelasgi, on the other hand, Edition: current; Page: [ 69 ] were, as I think, a barbarian race which never greatly multiplied.


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    • Hippocrates, when he was a private citizen, is said to have gone once upon a time to Olympia to see the games, when a wonderful prodigy happened to him. As he was employed in sacrificing, the cauldrons which stood near, full of water and of the flesh of the victims, began to boil without the help of fire, so that the water overflowed the pots. Gathering together a Edition: current; Page: [ 70 ] band of partisans, and giving himself out for the protector of the Highlanders, he contrived the following stratagem. He wounded himself and his mules, and then drove his chariot into the market-place, professing to have just escaped an attack of his enemies, who had attempted his life as he was on his way into the country.

      The Athenians, deceived by his story, appointed him a band of citizens to serve as a guard, who were to carry clubs instead of spears, and to accompany him wherever he went. Thus strengthened, Pisistratus broke into revolt and seized the citadel. In this way he acquired the sovereignty of Athens, which he continued to hold without disturbing the previously existing offices or altering any of the laws. He administered the state according to the established usages, and his arrangements were wise and salutary.

      However, after a little time, the partisans of Megacles and those of Lycurgus agreed to forget their differences, and united to drive him out. So Pisistratus, having by the means described first made himself master of Athens, lost his power again before it had time to take Edition: current; Page: [ 71 ] root. No sooner, however, was he departed than the factions which had driven him out quarrelled anew, and at last Megacles, wearied with the struggle, sent a herald to Pisistratus, with an offer to re-establish him on the throne if he would marry his daughter.

      Pisistratus consented, and on these terms an agreement was concluded between the two, after which they proceeded to devise the mode of his restoration. And here the device on which they hit was the silliest that I find on record, more especially considering that the Greeks have been from very ancient times distinguished from the barbarians by superior sagacity and freedom from foolish simpleness, and remembering that the persons on whom this trick was played were not only Greeks but Athenians, who have the credit of surpassing all other Greeks in cleverness.

      This woman they clothed in complete armour, and, instructing her as to the carriage which she was to maintain in order to beseem her part, they placed her in a chariot and drove to the city. Minerva, who of all men honours him Edition: current; Page: [ 72 ] the most, herself conducts him back to her own citadel. They of the city also, fully persuaded that the woman was the veritable goddess, prostrated themselves before her, and received Pisistratus back.

      Pisistratus, having thus recovered the sovereignty, married, according to agreement, the daughter of Megacles. His wife at first kept this matter to herself, but after a time, either her mother questioned her, or it may be that she told it of her own accord. Megacles, indignant at receiving an affront from such a quarter, in his anger instantly made up his differences with the opposite faction, on which Pisistratus, aware of what was planning against him, took himself out of the country.

      Arrived at Eretria, he held a council with his children to decide what was to be done. The opinion of Hippias prevailed, and it was agreed to aim at regaining the sovereignty. The first step was to obtain advances of money from such states as were under obligations to them. Edition: current; Page: [ 73 ] By these means they collected large sums from several countries, especially from the Thebans, who gave them far more than any of the rest. To be brief, time passed, and all was at length got ready for their return.

      A band of Argive mercenaries arrived from the Peloponnese, and a certain Naxian named Lygdamis, who volunteered his services, was particularly zealous in the cause, supplying both men and money. In the eleventh year of their exile the family of Pisistratus set sail from Eretria on their return home. They made the coast of Attica, near Marathon, where they encamped, and were joined by their partisans from the capital and by numbers from the country districts, who loved tyranny better than freedom. At Athens, while Pisistratus was obtaining funds, and even after he landed at Marathon, no one paid any attention to his proceedings.

      When, however, it became known that he had left Marathon, and was marching upon the city, preparations were made for resistance, the whole force of the state was levied, and led against the returning exiles. Meantime the army of Pisistratus, which had broken up from Marathon, meeting their adversaries near the temple of the Pallenian Minerva, pitched their camp opposite them.

      Here a certain soothsayer, Amphilytus by name, an Acarnanian, moved by a divine impulse, came into the presence of Pisistratus, and approaching Edition: current; Page: [ 74 ] him uttered this prophecy in the hexameter measure:. Such was the prophecy uttered under a divine inspiration. Pisistratus, apprehending its meaning, declared that he accepted the oracle, and instantly led on his army.

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      The Athenians from the city had just finished their midday meal, after which they had betaken themselves, some to dice, others to sleep, when Pisistratus with his troops fell upon them and put them to the rout. As soon as the flight began, Pisistratus bethought himself of a most wise contrivance, whereby the Athenians might be induced to disperse and not unite in a body any more. He mounted his sons on horseback and sent them on in front to overtake the fugitives, and exhort them to be of good cheer, and return each man to his home.

      The Athenians took the advice, and Pisistratus became for the third time master of Athens. Upon this he set himself to root his power more firmly, by the aid of a numerous body of mercenaries, and by keeping up a full exchequer, partly supplied from native sources, partly from the countries about the river Strymon. Farther, he purified the island of the Delos, according to the injunction of an oracle, after the following fashion: All the dead bodies which had been interred within sight of the temple he dug up, and removed to another part of the isle.

      At a still earlier period they had been the very worst governed people in Greece, as well in matters of internal management as in their relations towards foreigners, from whom they kept entirely aloof. The circumstances which led to their being well-governed were the following: Lycurgus, a man of distinction among the Spartans, had gone to Delphi, to visit the oracle. Scarcely had he entered into the inner fane, when the Pythoness exclaimed aloud:.

      Some report, besides, that the Pythoness delivered to him the entire system of laws which are still observed by the Spartans. On the death of Lycurgus they built him a temple, and ever since they have worshipped him with the utmost reverence. Their soil being good and the population numerous, they sprang up rapidly to power, and became a flourishing people. In consequence they soon ceased to be satisfied to stay quiet; and, regarding the Arcadians as very much their inferiors, they sent to consult the oracle about conquering the whole of Arcadia.

      The Pythoness thus answered them:. Then these persons, Edition: current; Page: [ 78 ] wearing the fetters which they had themselves brought, and fastened together in a string, measured the Tegean plain as they executed their labours. The fetters in which they worked, were still, in my day, preserved at Tegea, where they hung round the walls of the temple of Minerva Alea.